What is the chemical formula of bread

Bread, its ingredients and names

In addition to grains in various forms (ground, ground, etc.), the following ingredients may be used in the production of bread: drinking water, loosening agents, salt, sugar, fats, milk and dairy products, products made from legumes or potatoes, spices, raisins, oil seeds as well as germs, bran and starches of the grain as well as certain proportions of leftover bread.

Over three hundred types of bread are available in Germany. Some bread names are defined in the guidelines for bread and biscuits; however, many are fantasy names for which no mandatory composition is prescribed. According to the guideline, “wheat bread” must have a wheat content of at least 90 percent, while “mixed wheat bread” must still have at least 50 percent. The same applies to rye breads.

In addition, the guideline defines at least one more »flour bread«, one »whole grain bread« and one »whole grain bread« and the minimum content of whole grain products, etc. for each type of grain. "Raisin Bread" or "Wood Oven Bread". In contrast to bread, fine baked goods and long-life baked goods have more than 10 percent fat, sugar or other ingredients and a lower water content.

Guidelines for ingredients of various breads

  1. Wheat bread or white bread
    Wheat bread or white bread is made from at least 90 percent wheat flour.
  2. Mixed wheat bread
    Mixed wheat bread is made from more than 50, but less than 90 percent wheat flour.
  3. Rye bread
    Rye bread is made from at least 90 percent rye flour.
  4. Mixed rye bread
    Mixed rye bread is made from more than 50, but less than 90 percent rye flour.
  5. Whole wheat bread
    Whole wheat bread is made from at least 90 percent whole wheat products.
  6. Whole grain rye bread
    Whole grain rye bread is made from at least 90 percent whole grain rye products. At least two thirds of the acid added comes from sourdough.
  7. Whole grain bread
    Whole grain bread is made from at least 90 percent rye and whole wheat products in any proportion to each other. At least two thirds of the acid added comes from sourdough. A Whole wheat rye bread is made from more than 50 percent whole wheat products. A Wholemeal rye wheat bread is made from more than 50 percent whole grain rye products.
  8. Whole grain oat bread
    or wholemeal bread with other types of grain Wholemeal oat bread is made from at least 20 percent whole-grain oat products, and at least 90 percent whole-grain products in total. The same applies to wholemeal breads with names of other types of grain (e.g. Whole grain barley bread). At least two thirds of the acid added comes from sourdough.
  9. Wheat Bread
    Wheat meal bread is made from at least 90 percent wheat baked meal.
  10. Rye bread
    Rye meal is made from at least 90 percent rye meal.
  11. Whole bread
    Whole bread is made from at least 90 percent rye and wheat bread in any proportion to each other. Wheat rye meal bread is made from more than 50 percent wheat baked meal.
    Rye wheat meal bread is made from more than 50 percent rye baked meal.
  12. pumpernickel
    Pumpernickel is made from at least 90 percent rye baked meal and / or whole grain rye meal with baking times of at least 16 hours. If pumpernickel is made from whole grain meal, at least two thirds of the acid added comes from sourdough.
  13. Toast
    In particular, the following are produced:
    - Toast made from at least 90 percent wheat flour
    - Whole wheat toast made from at least 90 percent
    If acid is added, at least two thirds of it comes from sourdough
    - Mixed wheat toast made from more than 50 percent, but less than 90 percent wheat flour
    - Mixed rye toast made from more than 50 percent but less than 90 percent rye flour
    - Whole grain toast made from at least 90 percent whole wheat / rye products in any proportion to each other. If acid is added, at least two thirds of it comes from sourdough.
  14. crispbread
    Crisp bread is made as dry flat bread - using whole grain meal, whole grain flour or flour from rye, wheat, other types of grain or mixtures thereof, as well as other foods - with yeast loosening or sourdough fermentation or airing in a physical way or with other loosening processes. Crispbread is not made by hot extrusion. The moisture content of the finished product does not exceed 10 percent. Other dry flat breads can be made by hot extrusion. Incidentally, they meet the requirements for crispbread.
  15. Multigrain bread, three-grain bread, four-grain bread
    Multigrain breads are made from at least one type of bread cereal and from at least one other type of cereal, a total of three or more different types of cereal. Each type of grain is contained at least 5 percent. The same applies to multi-grain toast and crispbread.
  16. Oat bread, rice bread, corn bread, millet bread, buckwheat bread, barley bread
    The proportion of the eponymous other types of grain in these types of bread is at least 20 percent.
  17. Spelled bread, tritical bread
    Spelled bread, triticale bread are made from at least 90 percent spelled or triticale products. Breads with further information meet the requirements of the previous sections. The further information does not replace the sales description.
  18. Stone oven bread
    Stone oven bread is pushed open or pushed and baked only on baking trays made of natural and / or artificial stone, firebrick or other suitable non-metallic materials.
  19. Wood-fired bread
    Wood-fired bread is pushed open or pushed and made in directly fired ovens, the baking chambers of which are made of stone or stone-like material. The heating material is in the oven. Only natural wood is used as heating material.
  20. Barley bread, barley bread
    With this bread, the dough pieces are flamed (tarred) in an open fire; it has a characteristic mottling as a result.
  21. Ham sandwich
    Ham bread is wholemeal rye bread or rye meal bread, pushed free, pushed or baked in a box in a semicircular shape. It has a hearty, aromatic taste. It is not customary to add ham. Ham is only added in a few areas and only in flour breads.

Source: Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (BMELV):
Guiding principles of the German food book for bread and biscuits
from October 19, 1993; last changed on 09/19/2005
www.bmelv.de

Status: October 2010

Published in A - F, B and tagged with labels, bread, guidelines, ingredients.