Sanskrit is mandatory for BAMS

The consonant r is a tongue-r as in Bavarian. ś corresponds roughly to German sch.


1 Yoga Vidya Sanskrit Glossary (preliminary version from August 2011) Sanskrit pronunciation: In addition to the practical, the yoga teacher training also has a theoretical part, within which an insight into the background of yoga and various Indian worldviews is given. Many of the underlying texts are in Sanskrit, and during the training one is invited to learn a number of Sanskrit terms. It is worth pronouncing them correctly, as this preserves the intelligibility of the words and also better accentuates the beautiful sound of Sanskrit. However, the correct pronunciation can only be obtained if the words are written in scientific transcription. Without this, you never know whether a vowel is long or short, or how exactly a consonant is articulated. To do this, you have to learn a few special characters that you can quickly remember. It is also advisable to look at the Sanskrit alphabet, which is based on the principles of sound formation. First of all, the most important thing is to distinguish between long and short vowels. Short a (without a dash above it) is pronounced closed, i.e. the mouth is not opened as wide as in the German a. Vowels with dashes above (ā, ī, ū,), e (as in tea) and o (as in Tor) are always long, i.e. twice as long as the short vowels a, i, u ,. The latter is a vowel in Sanskrit, but nowadays it becomes ri in northern India, which can be adopted. With consonants, the distinction between aspirated and unaspirated consonants is also very important, but unusual for Germans. When pronouncing unaspirated consonants, a candle flame held in front of the mouth must not move, as in the French 'table.' So practice: ka-kha, ga-gha, ca-cha, ja-jha, ṭa- ṭha, ḍa-ḍha, ta-tha, da-dha, pa-pha, ba-bha. Some consonants with a dot underneath are spoken with the tongue bent back: ṭ, ṭh, ḍ, ḍh, ṇ, ṣ (sound a little duller than in German t, d, n, sch etc., you should be led to believe). ḥ within words, sentences, stanzas and at the end of words there is an air of breath, at the end of sentences and stanzas there is an h with a short repetition of the preceding vowel: Śivaḥ> Śivah a, Viṣṇuḥ> Viṣṇuh u, Hariḥ> Harih i etc. ṃ im Glossary can usually be pronounced as m, where this is not the case, the nasal corresponding to the following consonant was written in the transcription. The consonant r is a tongue-r as in Bavarian. ś corresponds roughly to German sch. Hindi: Some of the words in the glossary come from Hindi, which includes many Sanskrit words. Short a at the end (and partly inside) of words is not pronounced here, except occasionally in poems. That is, if you omit the end-a-s from the Sanskrit words in the glossary, you get the Hindi pronunciation in many cases: Sanskrit Girīśa becomes Hindi Girīś, ādhāra becomes ādhār. In the Hindi words in the glossary, unspoken a-s have been omitted. - Page 1 of Sanskrit Glossary, Yoga Vidya, Yogaweg 7, Bad Meinberg, Tel

2 Other special features of Hindi: Hindi has some sounds from Persian and Arabic that do not exist in Sanskrit, e.g. f, q (k spoken in the throat) etc. In, the tongue briefly touches the palate at the point where the consonant r is spoken. The Sanskrit stems ending in -in and -an become -ī and -ā in Hindi: adhikārin becomes adhikārī, advaitin becomes advaitī, yogin becomes yogī, aṇiman becomes aṇimā. Both are stated in the glossary: ​​yogin / -ī. Other Sanskrit tribes are also changed: e.g. jyotis becomes jyoti. If there are two kinds of tribes in Sanskrit, they are noted accordingly: āmalaka / - ī stands for āmalaka and āmalakī. Common mistakes One should not underestimate the importance of correct pronunciation for the meaning of the word: śastra means 'weapon', śāstra 'teaching text;' bala 'power,' bāla 'child,' Kālī denotes the well-known goddess, kali the age in which we live etc. In German, the penultimate syllable is often stressed, so that wrong lengths arise there as in kuṇḍalīni, yogīni, bhramāri, anahāta , cintāna, Garūḍa etc. instead of kuṇḍalinī, yoginī, bhrāmarī, anāhata, cintana, Garuḍa etc. Please also note: with c the tongue is in the same place as with ś, but it is pronounced ch: chakras (cakra-s) are the energy centers in the subtle body, the chakra (Śakra) on the other hand is a name of the god-king Indra. When it comes to pronunciation questions, Indians are not necessarily the best address as they are often influenced by their respective mother tongues - especially with s and ś, b and v, a and o, voiced and unvoiced consonants. About the glossary Most of the meaning of the words is taken from Vaman Shivaram Aptes 'Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary' and Stuart McGregor's 'Hindi-English Dictionary.' For yoga terminology, yoga texts, special dictionaries and writings by Svāmī Śivānanda were also used. The words in the glossary are arranged according to the spelling of previous Yoga Vidya publications (1st column), with some improvements being made, e.g. various replacement of s by sh. The occasional w for v has been retained. If words are connected by a hyphen in column 2, they are compound words (such as Sanskrit-text-book) which, as far as the phonetic rules allow, are broken down into their individual parts (exception: the word 'Upaniṣad' is fundamentally separated called). Under 'gender' should actually be m., F., N. (Masculine, feminine, neuter), but experience has shown that 'der / die / das' is more understandable. Only names (if the term is not used otherwise) and titles of books were capitalized. Suggestions for improving the next version of the glossary are welcome. - Page 2 of Sanskrit Glossary, Yoga Vidya, Yogaweg 7, Bad Meinberg, Tel

3 Previous indication of scientific genus, meaning, use in the YLH etc. Transcription abhanga abhaṅga the 'without break,' Name for a certain type of devotional songs in Maharashtra abharana ābharaṇa the jewelry; one of the presentations in the pūjā (worship ritual) abhimana abhimāna of pride, haughtiness, arrogance abhyasa abhyāsa of practice, study of achamana ācamana the rinsing of the mouth before rituals and before and after eating achara ācāra the behavior acharya ācāsthama the teacher, master low , worst; masculine: the lowest, worst adhara ādhāra of support; that which contains something, vessel; Concentration point adharma adharma of the non-dharma, wrong behavior adhikari adhikārin / -ī the one characterized by authority / entitlement (e.g. disciple who is entitled to instruction) adhvaryu adhvaryu the priest who performs the sacrificial acts in the Vedic sacrifice and recites the Yajurveda adhyasa adhyasa the (false) transference / assumption adhyatma adhyātma related to the self Adishesha (Ādi-) śeṣa the name of the thousand-headed serpent on which Viṣṇu rests on the ocean āditya āditya of the sun (ngott) adwaita advaita dualism, nondualistic; neuter: non-duality, identity (esp. of ātman and brahman) Adwaita Vedanta Advaita-vedānta the non-dualistic Vedānta, philosophy of monism, one of the 6 philosophical systems adwaitin advaitin / -ī the one characterized by advaita; Followers of the Advaitavedānta agama āgama of the coming; religious doctrine, scripture; also neuter: sectarian writings that teach the worship of deities agami āgāmin / -ī coming, in future agami karma āgāmī-karma karma, which will come towards you in the future agarbha agarbha without womb / embryo agarbha pranayama agarbhaprānāyāma japaṇney māma japaṇney without agarbhaprāma belonging to agni (fire) agneyi āgneyī the name of Agni's wife; Designation of the southeast corner of a house; āgneyī yogadhāraṇā: the yoga concentration (dhāraṇā) by which Këa entered his own place at the end of his life without burning his body (Bhāgavatapurāṇa) agni agni the fire (god) agni sara agni-sāra the essence of fire; kriyā (here: cleansing exercise) in which the abdominal organs are massaged by moving the abdominal muscles agnitattva agni-tattva the element of fire aham brahmasmi aham brahmāsmi aham brahma asmi: I am the brahman; mahāvākya (large sentence) from the White Yajurveda (B hadāraṇyaka-upaniṣad) ahamgraha upasana ahaṅ-graha- the abstract meditation e.g. about brahman as your own - page 3 of Sanskrit Glossary, Yoga Vidya, Yogaweg 7, Bad Meinberg, Tel

4 upāsanā self, in contrast to pratīka upāsanā, meditation on the form-like deity ahamkara ahaṅ-kāra the sense of self / ego, ahanta ahantā the ego, sense of self / me ahara āhāra the self-acceptance; Food ahimsa ahiṃsā the non-injured, first yama in Yogasūtra 2.30 ahmin s. Amin Ahuramazda Ahuramazdā the highest god in Zoroastrianism aim aiṃ bīja-mantra Sarasvatīs aishwarya aiśvarya the sovereignty, power, greatness belonging to the ajadanivedanada aitareṣaṣitanati the Upadanivedanati belonging to the ajadanivedaati the Upadanivedanati of the ajadanivedanati the ajadanivedaati of the ajadanivedanati the upanivedanati of the ajadanivedaati of the upanivedanati ajāti-vāda of the Gauḍapādas theory of non-arising ajna chakra ājñā-cakra the 'command-cakra,' center between the eyebrows, forehead center, third eye ajnana ajñāna the ignorance (heit) ajnani ajñānin / -aasha ī the ignorant akasha Space, ether (5th, subtle, element) Akashachronik ākāśa-chronik Sum of all recorded thoughts in the thought sphere (theosophical-anthroposophical theory from the end of the 19th / beginning of the 20th century) Akbar Akbar Mughal ruler (reign) akhanda akhaṇḍa undivided, whole , continuous akshara akṣara immortal; neuter: syllable akshi akṣi the eye alambana ālambana the support, place; in yoga: concentration on object (YS 1.17, Vyāsa commentary) alambusa alambuṣā the one of the 14 main nāḍīs Alandi Ā andī pilgrimage near Pue alasya ālasya the indolence, laziness alata chakra alāta-cakra the shining circle, formed by the swing of one burning wood Allahabad Allahabād city in northern India at the confluence of the Gaṅgā and Yamunā allopathy treatment with means 'other than the disease,' conventional medicine alveoli alveoli air bubbles in the lungs amalaka āmalaka / -ī the / the āmalaka tree (emblica officinalis), myrobalan, neuter : Fruit of the tree amara amara immortal amara purusha amara immortal man, human amari amarī the one of amara, 'immortal:' own urine, remedy of the Kāpālika-yogīs (HYP) amaroli amarolī the 1st variant of vajrolī, a mudrā to prevent ejaculation; 2. Drinking one's own urine amba ambā the mother, term for Durgā and other goddesses ambhasi dhāraṇā āmbhasī dhāraṇā the concentration on (the element) water (ambhas) Ambika Ambikā the mother, diminutive of ambā, name of Durgā amin āmīn Amen in Islam amla āmlā (Hindi) the myrobalan tree and fruit, see āmalaka amnaya āmnāya of tradition, sacred text, Veda, Tantra amrita am ta the immortality; Ambrosia (immortality potion) amsha aṃśa the part amsha avatar aṃśāvatāra of the partial incarnation of a god anahata chakra anāhata-cakra the 'chakra of the unstruck' (an-ā-hata sound, the - page 4 of Sanskrit Glossary, Yoga Vidya, Yogaweg 7, Bad Meinberg, Tel

5th century AD) anga aṅga the body, limb, part angula aṅgula of the fingers, finger breadth anima aṇiman / -ā of smallness; one of the eight supernatural abilities of yogīs anitya anitya non-eternal, ephemeral annamaya kosha anna-maya-kośa the (physical) body shell made of food / matter antahkarana antaḥ-kara innera the inner organ, seat of thoughts and feelings, thinking (here antaḥ because k follows) antar antar / -ḥ used as a prefix: inside, between, in; r or ḥ according to Sandhi rules, see antaḥkaraṇa, antarātman antaranga antar-aṅga the inner part, inner organ, heart, thinking antaratman antar-ātman the inner self, antaryamin antar-yāmin / -ī the inner guide, self anubhava anubhava the direct Perception, experience; Self-realization anuloma-viloma anuloma-viloma along the hair - against the hair: with and against the grain; related to prāṇāyāma: nāḍī-śodhana, alternating breathing apana apāna the downward breathing: one of the five main prāṇas (types of breath), responsible for excretion, sexuality, menstruation apandura āpāṇḍura a little pale (pāṇḍura), pale apara vidyya a.o. apar apara vāidara lower apar apara vidara etc. the lower, relative knowledge aparigraha aparigraha of non-embracing, non-greediness; 5. yama in Yogasūtra 2.30 (Vyāsabhāṣya: viṣayānām arjana-rakṣaṇakṣaya-saṅga-hiṃsā-doṣa-darśanād asvīkaraṇam aparigrahaḥ 'not taking possession of objects because one sees the evil of hurting by acquiring, holding on to, Svamanda. Svamī : Refusal to accept gifts; Incorruptibility Aparokshanubhuti Aparokṣānubhūti die aparokṣa-anu ~, 'Direct perception:' Work attributed to Śaṅkarācārya apas āpaḥ the plural of ap, water apaurusheya apauruṣeya not [made] (e.g. Veda) apparatus (6th / 7th. AD) Appaya Dikshitar Appaya Dīkṣitar the South Indian scholar and saint of Advaita- - Page 5 of Sanskrit Glossary, Yoga Vidya, Yogaweg 7, Bad Meinberg, Tel

6 school () apsaras apsaras the semi-divine, heavenly, seductive female being apurna apūrṇa not full, incomplete arambha ārambha the beginning, beginning; ārambha-avasthā initial stage (a state reached through prāṇāyāma) Aranyaka Āraṇyaka the 'belonging to the forest / wilderness' (text, may only be recited outside the village); 3rd part of the Veda arati āratī (Hindi) that of Sanskrit ārātrika (m): evening swinging of a light in front of the image of a god or guru; today: light ceremony after the pūjā archana arcana / -ā das / the worship, designation of respect for deities and authorities; Sacrifice of rice or flowers; Part of a pūjā ardha ardha half, masculine: half ardha matsyendrasana ardha-matsyendrāsana the half-matsyendra seat; Swivel seat; one of the 12 basic positions in Haṭhayoga ardhangini ardhāṅginī the wife (

7 ashtanga aṣṭāṅga eight-limbed ashtanga yoga aṣṭāṅga-yoga the aṣṭa-aṅga ~, the yoga consisting of eight limbs: yama, niyama, āsana, prāṇāyāma, pratyāhāra, dhāraṇā, dhyāna (YS 2.92) Ashtavakra a of a sage ashwattha aśvattha of the ficus religiosa: sacred fig tree; Symbol of creation in Bhagavadgītā 15 ashwin aśvin (au, dual) characterized by horses, designation of the twin gods, also called aśvinīkumārau (the two sons of Aśvinī), Hindi aśvinīkumār ashwini mudra aśvinī mudrā the tensing and letting go of the pelvic muscles not stealing, one of the 5 yamas in Yogasūtra 2.30 asura asura the demon asuri āsura / āsurī (Hindi) demonic Atharva Veda Atharva-veda the Veda of the Atharvan priests, 4th Veda ati ati prefix: extremely, very, much, too (Much) ati prashna ati-praśna of the 'questioning,' too far-reaching question about transcendent truths atindriya atīndriya ati-indriya, going beyond the sense perception, transcendence atma nivedana ātma-nivedana the surrender of the self (to God or similar) atma sakshatkara ātma-sākṣāt-kāra of the perception of the self atman ātman of the self atmasamarpana ātma-samarpaṇa the surrender of the self (to God or similar) avadhani avadhānin / -ī attentive (Apte: adj. of avadhāna, attention amkeit) avadhuta avadhūta the one who has shaken off (everything worldly): ascetic avahana āvāhana the summoning (of a deity) at the beginning of the pūjā Avanti Avanti / ī one of the 7 holy cities of India: today Ujjayinī (Madhyapradesh); see pura avarana āvaraṇa covering / covering up, covering up; 'Veil of Ignorance' avastha avasthā the state, situation, stage avatar avatāra of descent, incarnation (of God); the 10 classical incarnations of Viṣṇu: matsya (fish), kūrma (turtle), varāha (boar), narasiṃha (male lion), vāmana (dwarf), Paraśurāma, Rāma, Kṛṣṇa, Buddha, Kalki avidya avidyā the ignorance avyaktam avyakta unmanifest; neuter: the unmanifest ayam ayam that Ayodhya Ayodhyā the capital of Rāma's empire ayudha puja āyudha-pūjā the weapons-pūjā; Celebration on the ninth day of navarātra, on which weapons, important tools, etc. (today also cars and computers) are venerated together with Sarasvatī, Lakṣmī, Pārvatī, Ayurveda āyurveda the 'knowledge of life,' traditional Indian medicine baba bābā (Hindi ) the father, respectful or loving salutation babu bābū the person of respect, polite salutation for father; Official Badarayana Bādarāyaṇa the name of the author of the Brahmasūtras identified with Vyāsa Badrinarayan, Badrinath Badarī-nārāyaṇa, Badarī-nātha the name of a place of pilgrimage in the Himālaya, Hindi pronunciation: Badrināth, Badrinārāya 7 from Sanskritarāhu of the bahu bahu bahu , Yoga Vidya, Yogaweg 7, Bad Meinberg, Tel

8/10. Century (10th chapter on Kṣṇa's childhood and youth) bhagavatar the South Indian honorary title bhagavati bhagavatī the venerable, the goddess Bhagiratha Bhagīratha the mythical king who brought the Gaṅgā to earth bhajan bhajana that shared, worship, in new Indian languages: devotional song bhakta bhakta of the worshiper (eg God) bhakti bhakti the allocation, share; Adoration, devotion; 9-fold after Bhāgavatapurāṇa: śravaṇaṃ kīrtanaṃ viṣṇoḥ, smaraṇaṃ pādasevanaṃ / arcanaṃ vandanaṃ dāsyaṃ, sakhyam ātmanivedanam, 'hearing (of stories), praising (with songs) Viṣṇu, remembering (his name), serving his feet (his image), his feet Adoration, bowing, attitude of the servant, friend, self-giving. bhakti yoga bhakti-yoga the yoga of devotion Bharata 1 Bharata the 1st mythical king, 2nd name of Rāma's brother bharata 2 bhārata belonging to Bharata; masculine: descendant of Bharata; Residents of India; neuter: the land of Bharata; today: India Bhartrihari Bhart hari the author of the Vākyapadīya (on grammar, approx. 5th century AD); Author of the Śataka-trayam (about love, lifestyle and dispassion, approx. 7th century) bhaskara bhāskara the light maker, sun bhasma bhasman / -a the ashes, holy ashes bhastrika bhastrikā the one breathing exercise which, among other things, is used to awaken the kuṇḍalinī becomes bhati bhāti the light, shine, see kapāla-bhāti bhava bhāva the becoming, being, state, feeling; five bhāvas: śānta, - page 8 of Sanskrit Glossary, Yoga Vidya, Yogaweg 7, Bad Meinberg, Tel

9 dāsya, sakhya, vātsalya, madhura (peaceful / calm feeling towards God, feeling of being his servant, friend, mother, beloved) bhavana bhāvana / bhāvanā das / the manifestation, presentation, meditation bhavani Bhavānī the designation Pārvatīs, Śiva's wife (from Bhava, name Śivas) bheda bheda of the splitting, separation, difference Bhedabheda Bhedābheda of bheda-abheda, difference and non-difference: philosophical direction, represented by Nimbārka (13th century), in which the individual self as different and bhikku bhikku (Pāli) the (Buddhist) mendicant monk (from Sanskrit bhikṣu) bhiksha bhikṣā the begging, alms Bhima Bhīma the brother Arjunas bhindi bhiṇḍī (Hindi) the vegetable variety: 'ladishays fingersī, Bh the great uncle Arjunas bhoga bhoga who enjoy, eat, (sensual) enjoyment bhogi bhogin / -ī who is characterized by enjoyment: connoisseur (sensual pleasures) Bhoja Bhoja the famous r king (approx. 10/11 Century AD) bhramara bhramara of the bee bhramari bhrāmarin / -ī that belongs to the bee; one of the 8 prāṇāyāmas Bhrigu Bh gu the mythical sage bhu bhū who the earth, land bhuchara siddhi bhū-cara-siddhi the 'supernatural power regarding the (animals) walking on earth / land:' ability to control wild animals bhujanga bhujaṅga the snake, cobra bhujangasana bhujaṅgāsana the cobra position bhujangini bhujaṅginī the female snake, name of the kuṇḍalinī bhukti bhukti who enjoy bhuma bhūman / -ā / -a the / the great quantity, abundance, the earth, area, creature; in yoga also experience of the infinite bhumi bhūmi which is the earth, plane; the levels of the mind according to Vyāsabhāṣya and Vācaspati Miśra to YS 1.1: kṣiptaṃ mūḍhaṃ vikṣiptaṃ ekāgraṃ niruddham iti cittabhūmayaḥ, 'the levels of the mind are: kṣipta, thrown (from one object to another through the influence of rajas) / instable; mūḍha, dull (due to the influence of tamas or sleep); vikṣipta, distracted (but sometimes stable); ekāgra, focused on one thing; niruddha, prevented. ' Bhumi Devi Bhūmi-devī the goddess earth bhumika bhūmikā the earth, place, floor, level, degree; 7 bhūmikās: śubhecchā, vicāraṇā, tanumānasā, sattvāpatti, asaṃsakti, padārthābhāvanī, turyagā by YV, 6 (s there.): Jñānabhūmiḥ śubhecchākhyā prathamāsamudāhṛtā / vicāraṇā dvitīyā tu tṛtīyā tanumānasā // sattvāpattiś caturthī syat tpd 'saṃsaktināmikā / padārthābhāvanī Sasthi Saptami turyagā smṛtā, 'The first level of knowledge is called happy wish, but consideration is the second, the third (state) of low thinking, reaching sattva is likely to be the fourth, then (comes) the called non-attachment, (the level of) absence of things ( is) the sixth, the seventh is remembered as going to the fourth (state of consciousness). ' bhupura bhū-pura the fortress of the earth, city, border of a yantra bhur loka bhūr-loka of the world / region of the earth, see loka Bhusunda Bhuśuṇḍa / -i the kāka Bhuśuṇḍa, mythical sage in the shape of a crow from the Yogavāsiṣṭha bhuta bhūdas Incarnate, creature, ghost bhuvana bhuvana the plain; see loka - page 9 of Sanskrit Glossary, Yoga Vidya, Yogaweg 7, Bad Meinberg, Tel

10 bhuvarloka bhuvar-loka of the region between earth and sun, atmosphere, see loka bhuvas bhuvas of air, atmosphere, see bhuvar-loka bibhishana bibhīṣaṇa terrifying, terrible; masculine: Name of Rāvaṇa's brother, the admirer of Rāmas became bija bīja the seed bija mantra bīja-mantra of the seed mantra, consisting of one syllable bijakshara bījākṣara the seed syllable (akṣara), bīja-mantra bindu bindu the drop, particle, period ; Form of cit-śakti bodha bodha of knowledge, perception, idea, awakening Brahma Brahmā the Creator God, see trimūrti brahma chintana brahma-cintana that means thinking about the brahman brahma nishta guru brahma-niṣṭhaguru the guru who is established in brahman brahma shrotri brahma-śrot / śrotā the hearer, student (also teacher) of the brahman brahmabhyasa brahmābhyāsa the study / practice to attain the brahman brahmacharin brahma-cārin / -ī the one who has made a vow of chastity brahmacharya brahma-carya the behavior that leads to brahman; celibate life, see varṇāśramadharma brahmagranthi brahma-granthi the brahman-knot (blockage in or above the mūlādhāra-cakra); stands for mala (impurity) and the difficulty of transcending the physical world brahmakara vritti brahmākāra-v tti the constant thinking of brahman brahmamuhurta brahma-muhūrta the moment; Time of brahman (between 3.30 and 5.V ndā-vana brinjal, probably from Sanskrit (bhaṇṭākī), the name for aubergine, developed in Portuguese, Hindi baiṅgan buddha buddha awakens; masculine: the awakened, Buddha (approx. Chr.) Buddhi buddhi the perception, intellect, discernment chaitanya caitanya the spirit, consciousness, highest reality Chaitanya Caitanya (Mahāprabhu) the, founder of the Gauḍīya-Vaiṣṇava- tradition, from which the Hare-Kṣṇa-movement - page 10 of Sanskrit Glossary, Yoga Vidya, Yogaweg 7, Bad Meinberg, Tel

11 emerged chakra chakra the wheel, energy center in the subtle body chakshu cakṣus the sight, eye, sight Chamunda / -i Cāmuṇḍā / -ī which according to the Devīmāhātmya form of goddess Durgā, victor over the demons Caṇḍa and Muṇḍa chandala cāṇḍāla the casteless ( Swear word) chandana candana das / the sandal tree, sandalwood, -paste Chandi Caṇḍī, Caṇḍikā the names Durgās chandra candra the moon Chang Dev Cāṅga-deva the yogī famous in Central India (approx. 13th century), pronounced Tsangdev chapati capātī (Hindi ) the thin bread from wheat charu South Indian dish made from rice, ghee, brown sugar and milk chatushtaya catuṣṭaya which is a group of four, sādhana ~ Chhandogya Upanishad Chāndogya- Upaniṣad the Upaniṣad of Sāmaveda, the Veda, which consists in the melodies of Chidananda cid -ānanda the pure consciousness and bliss chidatma cid-ātman / -ā the self consisting of perception / intelligence chikku cikkū (Marāṭhī) the sweet, brown, plum-sized fruit with black arzen kernels chilli hot spice chinmaya cin-maya that consists of pure intelligence; pure intelligence chinmudra cin-mudrā the hand position in which the tips of the thumb and index finger touch and form a circle, the palm faces forward chiranjivi cirañ-jīvin / -ī the long-lived (in the myths beings who live several thousand years can) chit cit the perception, pure consciousness, brahman chitra citra bright, clear chitra citrā the nāḍī inside the suṣumnā chitta citta the thought, thought, thinking (including memory, subconscious), thinking ability, reason Chudala Cūḍālā the wise queen in Yogavāsiṣṭha Chutney caṭnī (Hindi) the Indian side dish to food, sweet or spicy crorepati / croropati karo -pati the multimillionaire, from Hindi karo (English crore), 10 million curry strongly spiced Indian dish daiva daiva divine daivi shatsampat daivī ṣaṭ-sampad the divine wealth of 6 (virtues): see ṣaṭsampad dakini ḍākinī those in Buddhism: semi-divine, female, auxiliary spirit Dakshinamurti Dakṣiṇā-mūrti of the form of Śiva as highest Most teacher dal dāl (Hindi) the legume, lentil dish dama dama of taming, self-control dana dāna the giving, gift, generosity danda daṇḍa the / stick, stick, punishment Darjeeling Darjeeling city and district in the foothills of the eastern Himālaya, known for mild climate in summer and tea cultivation darshana darśana the sight, sight, sight (of a god or guru); philosophical system; 6 darśanas: Nyāya- Vaiśeṣika, Sāṃkhya-Yoga, Pūrva- and Uttaramīmāṃsā / Vedānta - page 11 of Sanskrit Glossary, Yoga Vidya, Yogaweg 7, Bad Meinberg, Tel

12 dasa dāsa the servant dasha daśan / daśa ten Dasharatha Daśa-ratha the name of Rāma's father (see Rāmāyaṇa) dasya dāsya the status of a servant, service Dattatreya Dattātreya the name of an Indian sage; Indian deity, in which Brahmā, Śiva and Viṣṇu are united, daya dayā the compassion deha deha the / the body deha shuddhi deha-śuddhi the purity / purification of the body dehadhyasa dehādhyāsa the deha-adhyāsa, false identification with the body Dehra Dun Dehrā-udhudhi City in Uttarākhaṇḍ, near Rishikesh deva deva the one god (from div 'to shine'); Term for brahmins; Western usage: angelic being devadatta deva-datta given by / for God, proper name like Theodor, name of Arjuna's conch shell; one of the secondary prāṇas (responsible for the yawning) Devaki Devakī the name of the mother Kṣṇas devanagari deva-nāgarī (lipi) the urban (lipi, writing) belonging to the gods / (possibly brahmins) devata devatā the deity devi devī the goddess dhal, see dal Dhammapada Dhamma-pada das Collection of 432 Buddhist thought verses, composed in the language Pāli Dhananjaya Dhanañjaya the 'gaining wealth,' name Arjunas; one of the five subsidiary prāṇas responsible for making sounds; also does not leave the dead (SSP 1.68; YCU 26), responsible for the decomposition of the body after death dhanurasana dhanur-āsana the one yoga posture dhanus / dhanu dhanus, dhanu the bow (in certain phonetic combinations: dhanur) (Hindi) Dhanvantari Dhanvantari der Name of the doctor of the gods, divine doctor dharana dhāraṇā the holding, concentration, sixth limb of the eight-limb yoga of the Patañjali dharma dharman who 'that which is established,' law, duty, right, religion; Peculiarity; one of the four puruṣārthas (human goals) dharma megha samadhi dharma-meghasamādhi the samādhi of the dharma cloud: state of meditation without desires and thoughts (YS 4.29) dhatu dhātu the essential component, element (etc.) dhauti dhauti / dhautī the cleansing of the stomach, one of the six karmas / kriyās (HYP 2.23 karmaṣaṭkam) Dhritarashtra Dh ta-rāṣṭra the mythical king, brother Pāṇḍu, father of Duryodhanas dhruva dhruva firm, firm, secure; masculine: Pole Star, name of a king's son,the ascetic and was made the pole star by Viṣṇu dhupa dhūpa the incense dhyana dhyāna the meditation, seventh member of the eight-limbed yoga of the Patañjali diksha dīkṣā the initiation, initiation diksha guru dīkṣā-guru the initiation guru: teacher who gives dipa dīkā the initiation guru: teacher who gives dipa dīkā Light dipika dīpikā the light, lamp - page 12 of Sanskrit Glossary, Yoga Vidya, Yogaweg 7, Bad Meinberg, Tel

13 dirgha dīrgha lang divya divya divine diwali dīvālī (Hindi) the row of lights, festival in honor of the goddess Lakṣmī dosha doṣa of faults; In Āyurveda: the types of constitution when, in an unbalanced state, Draupadi Draupadī the wife of the five Pāṇḍavas dridhata d ḍhatā the firmness drishti d diei the sight, sight, point of view Durga Durgā the name of one of the main female deities of India Duryodhana Duryodhana of the 101st tar sons dussera (English spelling) daśah (a) rā (Hindi) the last day of navarātra, a nine-day festival in honor of Durgā in September / October dwadashakshara mantra dvā-daśākṣaramantra of dvā-daśa-akṣara ~, 12-syllable mantra for K ṣṇa: oṃ namo bhagavate vāsudevāya dwaita dvaita the duality, dualism dwara dvāra the gate, entrance Dwaraka Dvārakā the sunken capital of K ṣṇa in the west of Gujarat Dwarakanath Dvārakā-nātha the Lord Dvārakā-nātha the lord Dvārakās, denomination K ṣṇas ea , ek eka eins ekadashi ekādaśī the 11th day of the lunar half-month, fasting day of the Viṣṇuiten ekagra ekāgra 'whose tip / goal is one,' on a sac he aligned, focused, one of the levels of the mind, see bhumi ekagrata ekāgratā die eka-agratā, 'one-aim' / one-pointedness: 'focused on one thing ekakshara mantra ekākṣara-mantra der eka-akṣara ~, monosyllabic mantra: oṃ ekoham ekoham ekoham 'ham I am the one ektar ektārā (Hindi) the one-stringed plucked instrument fakir faqīr (Arabic / Hindi) the religious beggar (esp. Muslim) gajendra gajendra der gaja-indra, Indra among the elephants, great elephant (esp. the one who was saved by Viṣṇu) gandha gandha the smell gandharva gandharva the class of demigods who are considered the singers and musicians of the gods Gandhi Gāndhī Mohandās Karmcand Gāndhī (), politician who led India to independence Ganesha Gaṇeśa the gaṇa-īśa, Hindu elephant-headed god of learning, overcoming obstacles, the good start, son of Pārvatī and Śivas Ganga Gaṅgā who the river Ganges; the goddess of the Gangadhara river Gaṅgā-dhara who 'who bears the Gaṅgā,' name of Śivas Gangotri Gaṅgotrī the place in the Himālaya near the Ganges spring ganika gaṇikā the prostitute garam masala garam masālā the hot spice mixture (Hindi) Gargi Gārgī the name of a Hindi Gargi Gārgī garhasthya gārhasthya the 4th stage of life: householding (see va ṇāśramadharma) Garuda Garuḍa the mythical bird, king of birds, enemy of snakes, Viṣṇu's mount garudasana garuḍāsana das garuḍa-āsana, a yoga posture gatha gāthā the (religious strophe gatha gāthā die) Gaudapadacharya Gauḍapādācārya the teacher (ācārya) Gauḍapāda (between 6th and 8th centuries AD - page 13 of Sanskrit Glossary, Yoga Vidya, Yogaweg 7, Bad Meinberg, Tel

14 Chr.), Probably Govinda's teacher, who is considered to be Śaṅkarācārya's teacher Gauranga Gauraṅga of the names Viṣṇus, Kṣṇas and Caitanyas (English Gouranga) Gauri Gaurī the name Pārvatīs (Śiva's wife) gayatri gāyatrī the name of a Vedic meter with 3 x 8 syllables ; Designation of the stanza gveda (tat savitur vareṇyam, bhargo devasya dhīmahi, dhiyo yo naḥ pracodayāt) and her form as goddess gerua geruā (Hindi) ocher-colored, ocher: color of ascetic robes ghata gha dera the 'pot' (= kumbhaka) state, if the Breath through prāṇāyāma in which suṣumnā enters (HYP 4.72) ghatika ghaṭikā the small water pot for calculating and designating a measure of time (approx. 24 minutes) ghee ghī (Hindi) clarified butter (Sanskrit gh tam) Gheranda Gheraṇḍa the Haṭhayoga Gheranda-Saṃh Saṃhitā Gheraṇḍa-saṃhitā the basic work of Haṭhayoga, ca composed ghrina gh ṇā which includes aversion, disgust, contempt giri giri the mountain Giridhara Giri-dhara the bearer of the mountain (Govardhana), designation K ṣṇas Girish Girīśa the Giri-īśa of the mountain / mountains, name Śivas gita gīta sung, the sung, the song Gita Gītā the 'the sung' (Upaniṣad), description of the Bhagavadgītā Gita Rahasya Gītā-rahasya the 'The Secret of the Gītā,' Na me of the Gītā commentary by Bāl Gaṅgādhar Ti ak () Godavari Godāvarī the name of a south Indian river gokula gokula the herd of cattle, cowshed; Name of the village where Këa grew up gopa gopa the cowherd gopala gopāla the cowherd; Name Kṣṇas gopi gopī the cowherdess; Admirer of K a in his youth Gorakhnath Gorakh-nāth the name of a great yogī from around the 11th century AD (= Gorakṣa-nātha) Goraksha Shatakam Gorakṣa-śataka the work on yoga, which is ascribed to Gorakhnāth Govardhana Govardhana Name of a mountain at V ”nd vana (see Giridhara) Govinda Govinda the name of Këa and the teacher of Śaṅkarācārya grantha grantha who binds together; literary work, book granthi granthi the knot grihastha g ha-stha the housekeeper; Person who is in work and family life; grihasthya is often wrongly used for gārhasthya guda guda / gudā das / the anus, rectum guha guhā the cave guna guṇa of quality, property of nature: 1. sattva (goodness, purity> lightness, light), 2. rajas (passion, activity ), 3. tamas (darkness, ignorance, dullness) gupta gupta protected, hidden, secret; masculine: Name Viṣṇus Gurkha Gorkhā of the Nepalese and North Indian ethnic group (from Gorakhnāth), used by the British as soldiers - page 14 of Sanskrit Glossary, Yoga Vidya, Yogaweg 7, Bad Meinberg, Tel

15 guru guru heavy (weighty); masculine: teacher, spiritual leader; according to the Tantric derivation: gu = darkness, ru = remove> who removes the darkness) Guru Nanak Guru Nānak the founder of Sikhism () gurudev guru-deva the god who is the guru: name and occasionally salutation of the guru guruguha guru-guha the Muttusvāmī Dīkṣitars 'signature,' or marking in the last stanza of his songs gurukula guru-kula the family of the guru, in which foreign students also live and are taught (old school system) ha ha according to the Tantric word derivation: 'sun' (p. haṭḥa) Hakini Hākinī the śakti of the ājñā-cakra halva halvā /Arab./Hindi) the dessert ham haṃ bīja-mantra of the viśuddha-cakra (connected with space) hamsa haṃsa the goose / ganter, has been made since the import of swans to India Great Britain used for 'swan'; Designation of a class of advanced ascetics; Soul, self; Symbol for brahman and the liberated (jīvanmukta) Hanuman Hanumat (Hanumān, Hanumanta) the general of the apes, Rāma's helper in the recovery of Sītās hara hara, taking away, seizing; masculine: name Śivas Harappa Harappa city of the Indus culture (heyday ca BC) hari hari green (lich), yellow (lich), reddish-brown; masculine: name Viṣṇus Harischandra Hariścandra the mythical king, proverbial for his truthfulness and generosity hastijihva hasti-jihvā one of the ten main nāḍīs hatha haṭha of violence, strength, tenacity; Tantric interpretation: ha = sun, ṭha = moon hatha yoga haṭha-yoga the yoga in which special emphasis is placed on body control Hatha Yoga Pradipika Haṭha-yogapradīpikā the 'lamp of Haṭhayoga:' main work of Haṭhayoga by Svātmārāma (15th century) havan havana the offering in the fire, fire offering himsa hiṃsā the injuring, killing, destruction hiranyagarbha hiraṇya-garbha the 'womb / embryo of gold / whose origin is in gold,' designation of the brahman and Viṣṇus homa homa the offering of clarified butter in the fire hrid hd, h daya the heart, thinking hrim hrīṃ bīja-mantra for Durgā, other goddesses and Śiva; According to Tantrāloka 30: mantra, with which kuṇḍalinī is awakened iccha icchā the wish ida iḍā the one of the main nāḍīs, located on the left side of the spine, is associated with the moon energy iddli idlī South Indian dish: steamed flat small cakes made from lentils and rice Indra Indra der in the Veda: King of the gods; at the end of compound words: König, bester (s. gajendra) indriya indriya the sense organ Indus the Latin name of the Sindhu river (today in Pakistan) - page 15 of Sanskrit glossary, Yoga Vidya, Yogaweg 7, Bad Meinberg, Tel

16 isha īśa the Lord; Designation of the highest god ishta iṣṭa desired, desired, adored, sacrificed; masculine: the worshiped (God); God, whom one especially venerates personally ishta devata iṣṭa-devatā the venerated deity, see iṣṭa ishwara īśvara the Lord, designation of the highest God, often Śiva ishwara pranidhana īśvara-praṇidhāna the deep meditation, devotion to God, one of the five niyamas (YS 2nd day of the waning moon in the month of Śrāvaṇa (July-August) janushirshasana jānu-śīrṣāsana the knee-head āsana, one-legged forward bend japa japa the repetition of mantras, name of God, etc. jatharagni jaṭharāgni of the fire in the stomach (jaṭhhara), Digestive fire jaya jaya / jay (Hindi) the (Hindi) victory, used in Hindi in the formula: xxx kī jay, 'victory of xxx' jayanti jayantī the birthday, jubilee jiva jīva the life principle, individual soul jivanmukta jīvan-mukta the living (jīvat) liberated jivanmukti jīvan-mukti the liberation during lifetime jivatman jīvātman the individual self (sometimes referred to as soul) dwelling in the body jnana jñāna the knowledge jnanabhyasa jñānābhyāsa the practice of knowledge s / Knowledge and Practice Jnanadeva Jñānadeva / Jñāndev the 'whose God is knowledge,' 'God of knowledge;' poet-saint from Maharashtra (late 13th century), is also called Jñāneśvar jnanaloka jñāna-loka the one of the seven levels , see loka jnanayoga jñāna-yoga the yoga of knowledge Jnaneswari Jñāneśvarī the name of the Bhagavadgītā commentary written by Jñāneśvar (Jñāndev); also: - Page 16 of Sanskrit Glossary, Yoga Vidya, Yogaweg 7, Bad Meinberg, Tel

17 'Mistress / Goddess of Knowledge:' Designation of Sarasvatīs and related goddesses jnani jñānin / -ī the knower, sage Jumna Yamunā the English spelling of Jamnā jyeshtha jyeṣṭha oldest / -e / -es, best / -e / -es jyoti (Hindi ) jyotis the light, shine, brightness Jyotsna jyotsnā the 'moonlight,' name of the commentary on the Haṭhayogapradīpikā by Brahmānanda (late 19th century) Kaaba ka'ba Muslim shrine in Mecca Kabir Kabīr the North Indian saint (perhaps) Kailash Kailāsa / Kailāś Mountain in Tibet, sacred to Hindus and Buddhists, mythical abode of Śiva and Kubera kaivalya kaivalya das isolation, separation of mind and matter, liberation Kakini Kākinī / Kākiṇī the śakti of anāhata cakra kala 1 kalā the small part of a thing, 16th part of the moon ; Art; in Hindi poetry: light, splendor, beauty kala 2 kāla black kala 3 kāla of time; Name of Śiva and the god of death kalatita kālātīta the one who went beyond time, who overcame it kali 1 dispute, worst throw in the game of dice; worst age (yuga, in which we are currently living), see yuga Kali 2 Kālī the black (goddess); also: female counterpart to Kāla (Śiva); Form of Durgā after the Devīmāhātmyam Kalki Kalki the 10th and last incarnation of Viṣṇu in this age kalpa kalpa the one cycle of creation; a day of the god Brahmā (432 million years), (ritual) prescription, alternative, method, suggestion, resolution kalpana kalpanā that forms; Imagination, idea kama kāma the wish, (sensual) desire / pleasure, love; God of Love kamala kamala the lotus kamalasana kamalāsana the lotus seat; 'the one whose seat is in the lotus:' Creator god Brahmā kamandalu kamaṇḍalu / -lū the water pot (s) of ascetics (made of clay or wood) Kameshwari Kāmeśvarī the first of the 15 nityā deities who rule over the 15 days of the lunar month; important tantric goddess; Name Durgās Kamsa Kaṃsa the king and demon, Uncle Kṣṇas, was killed by the latter kanda 1 kanda the tuber, knot; Root of most nāḍīs, between or above anus and genital organs; beginning approximately at the perineum kanda 2 kāṇḍa the / the part, chapter kanta kānta desires, loved, beautiful; masculine: lover kanti kānti of beauty, shine, desire, desire kapala kapāla the / the skull kapalabhati kapāla-bhāti the 'light / shine of the skull,' breathing exercise with strong exhalation and automatic inhalation kapalika kāpālika the śivaitic ascetic wearing a skull as a begging bowl; Name Śivas kapha kapha the slime; one of the three doṣas (types of constitution) of Āyurveda capillary hair vessels - page 17 of Sanskrit Glossary, Yoga Vidya, Yogaweg 7, Bad Meinberg, Tel

18 karana kāraṇa the cause karana sharira kāraṇa-śarīra the cause / causal body karika kārikā the memory verses or suffering, evil; 5 kleśas according to YS 2.3: avidyā (ignorance), asmitā (sense of self), rāga (anger, passion), dveṣa (hatred), abhiniveśa (attachment, especially on the body) kosha kośa / koṣa the / the vessel, in philosophy: (Body) - cover krama krama the step, proceeding, sequence - page 18 of Sanskrit Glossary, Yoga Vidya, Yogaweg 7, Bad Meinberg, Tel