Is the oil technology secured for the next decade?
Federal Research Report II
1 German Bundestag 5th electoral term Printed matter V / 2054 The Federal Minister for Scientific Research II / 67 Bad Godesberg, July 28, 1967 To the President of the German Bundestag Subject: Federal Research Report II Reference: Resolution of the German Bundestag of June 30, 1965 Printed matter IV / 3644 I hereby send the report of the Federal Government on the status and context of all measures for the promotion of scientific research and development in the Federal Republic of Germany Federal Research Report II "with reference to the resolution of the German Bundestag of June 30, 1965 Printed matter IV / 3644 in the working version approved by the Cabinet on July 26, 1967. Dr. Stoltenberg
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4 Printed matter V / 2054 German Bundestag 5th electoral term Page 3 The overall research budget in an international comparison The situation after 1964 in comparable countries The situation after 1964 in the United States of America and the Soviet Union The Federal Republic of Germany in an international comparison 151 Appendix: A Tables and Diagrams (federal, state, economic) I. Expenditures 160 II. Personnel 222 III. Students 231 IV. Accelerators and Nuclear Reactors in the Federal Republic of Germany 237 B Bibliography 248 C Item Register 251
5 Deutscher Bundestag 5th electoral term Drucksache y / 2054 Definitions A Research and Development (FE) Research Intellectual activity of individuals (or groups) with the aim of gaining new knowledge in a particular subject in a methodical, systematic and verifiable manner. Basic research Research that is predominantly not oriented towards the practical applicability of its results. Application-oriented basic research is understood to be the form of basic research whose choice of topic is influenced by the practical significance of a research topic. Applied research Research that is predominantly oriented towards the practical applicability of its results. Development Purposeful evaluation and application of research results and experiences, especially of a technological and economic nature, in order to arrive at systems, processes, substances, objects and devices (new development) or to improve existing ones (further development) Serving the sense of the development goal, is part of the development.Higher education research Research in scientific universities and their affiliated institutes in interaction with teaching.Research and development of the economy Research and development, the company or together conduct business conclusions in their own research and development facilities or have them carried out as contract research. In-house research and development Research and development of the economy in the company's own research facilities, which are primarily intended to serve the company. Joint research and development in the economy Research and development that is carried out by associations from the economy in jointly supported research and development facilities or carried out as contract research. Contract research and development Research and development that is carried out on the basis of an agreement between the contracting parties such as the public sector, companies or associations from the economy on the one hand and researchers, research groups or research and development facilities on the other. Administration-related research and development Research and development carried out at the instigation of the administration and for the fulfillment of departmental policy objectives. B Personnel in research and development institutions Academic Person who has completed training at a scientific university or at an educational institution recognized as equivalent by law with an examination. Researcher / Scientist / Academic Staff Academic (or person with the same qualifications) who works full-time in research or development. Definition of the OECD in the International Statistical Year: a) a qualified scientist or engineer is a person who has obtained a university degree in science or equivalent, or b) an equivalent diploma, or c) any other diploma which, in some countries, though of less than university degree standard, is nationally recognized as qualifying a person as a professional scientist or engineer, d) any other training which, though of less than university level or diploma as specified above, is nationally recognized as qualifying a person as a professional scientist or engineer (eg admission to professional societies or institutions, or having the qualifications necessary for such admission). Technical staff in research and development facilities People who have completed non-academic technical training and people with equivalent qualifications (graduates from state and state-recognized engineering schools, technical assistants, laboratory technicians, technicians) who work full-time in research and development facilities. Definition of the OECD in the International Statistical Year: technical personnel having high school graduation or equivalent and additional technical training, who assist scientists in R and D (e.g. laboratory technicians and assistants, draftsmen).
6 Drucksache V / 2054 German Bundestag 5th electoral term Research staff Scientific and technical staff in research and development institutions. Personnel in research and development facilities All personnel working in research and development facilities (scientific, technical and other personnel). C Expenditures Science expenses Expenditures for universities and for research and development (including all expenses for academic teaching, routine medical treatment in university hospitals and student funding). Research expenditure Research and development expenditure. Total research budget Expenditure by public administration and the private sector on research and development (excluding expenditure on student grants, academic teaching and the costs of routine medical treatment at university hospitals, as well as expenditure on libraries and archives). Net expenditure Total expenditure of a local authority minus payments from other local authorities.
7 German Bundestag 5th electoral term Drucksache V / 2054 Preview of content and results Aims of research policy In the second half of the 1960s, German research policy is increasingly determined by new trends and tasks. In the post-war period, all efforts were directed towards the general goal of rebuilding or expanding research facilities in all disciplines in order to gradually restore a sufficient basis for research and teaching, above all to compensate for the damage that research and the university faced in 1945. Due to the great efforts of the states, the federal government and the economy, especially in the last six years, the huge pent-up demand that existed at the end of the Second World War has now been largely satisfied. Catch-up tasks In certain areas, however, new catch-up tasks have arisen for German research policy. "In recent years, the USA and the USSR have once again increased their potential in research and technology considerably through renewed major investments, primarily from defense budget funds Problems related to this are currently being discussed intensively in many Western European countries. A competitive advantage that American research-intensive industries have over Western Europe is not only based on greater government demand, but often also on the ability of American industry to produce new research results more quickly and efficiently than European companies do The larger domestic market and the greater concentration of companies play a decisive role, as well as the larger number of people with secondary and higher education compared to Western Europe G. Research policy must not be guided only by catching up on backlogs. It must take on tasks more and more consistently than before, on the solution of which the further development of society and the economy depends to a great extent. Without a contribution from science and technology, these future tasks, for example in the areas of world food, energy supply, spatial planning, environmental hygiene, mass transport or educational planning, can no longer be mastered. Future tasks The Federal Government has, inter alia. In the fields of developing fast breeder reactors, space technology or data processing, we have started to promote such future tasks in long-term programs. For years, individual departments have been promoting research into problems of environmental hygiene, traffic planning or in individual projects
8 Drucksache V / 2054 German Bundestag 5th electoral term spatial planning. The German Research Foundation is taking on a number of future tasks. Materials research, energy conversion, keeping the air clean, noise research or marine research are examples. Trends in Research and Development Research Association This report attempts to show future tasks for research and development using a few examples *). However, this does not say anything about the institutional framework in which the respective task is to be pursued. In many cases new forms of organization will have to be found. At the moment there are only a small number of other non-university institutes in the Federal Republic of Germany that serve applied research and are able to carry out short-term analyzes of world nutrition and food production, traffic situation, population density, macroeconomic development or similar problems . With a few exceptions, the financing of these university-free institutes is not secured in the long term. The Federal Government therefore intends to promote applied research more intensively from 1968 onwards. State and industrial research funding must adapt more and more rapidly to changing trends in research and development. The report presents some of these tendencies, which it will be important to take into account when pursuing the major tasks of the future **). As in all industrialized countries, an ever closer interaction between science, technology and economy can also be observed in the Federal Republic of Germany. The promotion of this process confronts the state and the economy with new organizational and political tasks that force them to rethink earlier ideas of European and German science policy as a predominantly cultural and political state activity. The mutual influence and interdependence between administration and industry will also increase. These processes bring with them uncertainties and new questions in politics, administration and industrial management. The current areas of contact, such as scientific advice, contract research, and the organizational forms of applied research are not yet appropriately arranged and not sufficiently prepared for the problems to be expected in the future. The diversity and scope of future tasks on the one hand, and the limited financial and human resources on the other hand, force you to consider priorities. Without prejudice to the freedom of university research to determine its own goals, the establishment of a regionally structured research network "between the federal government, the federal states and the private sector has in many cases become inevitable - *) Section IA, p. 35 **) Section IA 1, p. 36
9 German Bundestag - 5th electoral term Drucksache V / 2054 research areas at scientific universities, which should gradually lead to a network system of research. The Collaborative Research Centers will complement the existing priority program of the German Research Foundation and the major federal funding programs. In its resolution of May 21, 1965, the German Bundestag called on the Federal Government to have the Science Council work out an overall plan for the promotion of science and research. There is still a long way to go to such an overall plan. First of all, it must be ensured that sufficient information is available. This requires detailed research, university and personnel statistics, as well as surveys of scientific institutions and ongoing projects as well as their costs and personnel requirements. An appropriate information system must ensure that the processed information gets quickly to where it is needed for decisions. Only if all information is sufficiently available makes it possible to draw up partial plans, such as those that already exist for the federal space research program or in the draft of the university master plan for Baden-Württemberg. From such sub-plans, larger planning units will gradually be put together, in which several sub-plans are aligned with common overarching objectives. For limited or overarching sub-plans, and even more so for an overall plan, a system is necessary that leads to the formulation of joint funding goals for science, industry, the federal government and the federal states and in this way avoids the disadvantages of a central planning authority. In a state like the Federal Republic of Germany, in which the federal government and eleven state governments have to work together to achieve national or international research policy goals, this creates particular difficulties. Research planning, total research budget In the Federal Republic of Germany, expenditure on research and development (total research budget) rose between 1964 and 1966 from DM 6.6 to DM 8.8 billion, ie by 34%. The share of the total research budget in the gross national product increased from 1.6 to 1.8%. Overview 1 puts the total research budget in the larger framework of science expenditure, which includes the expenditure for academic teaching, routine medical treatment in university hospitals and student funding. Development of expenditure from 1964 to 1966
10 Printed matter V / 2054 German Bundestag 5th electoral period Overview 1 Expenditures for science and total research budget in the Federal Republic of Germany 1) Millions DM I Federal public administration) ERP special assets Laender municipalities (GV) II Private sector Total I) Commercial industry Foundations and donations 2) III Science expenditure total II total (I + II)) in% of the gross national product 2.1 2.2 2.4 IV including: total research budget 3) in% of the gross national product 1.6 1.7 1.8 In the 1967 federal budget DM 3.28 billion is earmarked for science. This is 28% more than in the previous year. If the federal states and the economy achieve similar growth rates, this would result in funds totaling over DM 14 billion for 1967. Multi-year financial planning Especially in times of economic downturn, an increase in science expenditure, as provided in the first and second investment budgets of 1967, in particular, contributes to a short-term increase economically desirable increase in demand without an immediate increase in supply and promotes long-term technical progress that increases economic growth. In the federal government's multi-year financial planning up to 1971 adopted on July 6, 1967, the federal government provided for a growth rate for science that is well above the average annual increase in expenditure in the federal budget. While according to the macroeconomic target 1) 1964 = actual; 1965 and 1966 provisional actual or target for the public administration, estimates for the private sector 2) without the Volkswagenwerk Foundation, which is included in the public administration 3) estimate 4) without DM 40 million in special purchases for research purposes from Great Britain (foreign exchange aid)
11 Deutscher Bundestag 5th electoral term Drucksache V / 2054 projection is based on an annual average growth rate of around 6% in total public expenditure from 1967 to 1971, the average growth rate for federal science expenditure will be 16%. According to the financial planning, the Federal Ministry for Scientific Research has planned a year total in millions of DM Increase compared to the previous year in / o, 4 without investment budget,,, 3 In the Federal Research Report I it was expressed as a realistic expectation that the state and the economy would increase their expenditures by 1970 that the share of science expenditure in the gross national product reaches a level of around 3%. The expenditure trend that has now occurred and the decisions made in the multi-year financial planning make this goal appear achievable. If government and business continue to increase their expenditure on research and development (total research budget) to the same extent as in the last three years, the total research budget in 1970 would amount to between DM 13 and 14 billion. This would correspond to a share of about 2.4% of the gross national product and would be roughly the same share that France requested in its Fifth Plan for 1970.An international comparison of spending on research and development in 1964, excluding the humanities and social sciences, clearly shows that the gap between the United States and Western Europe narrows considerably if defense research is not taken into account. In civil research, a comparison between the Western European countries also gives a uniform picture. The relatively larger total expenditures in Great Britain are based, among other things, on higher expenditures in military aerospace and nuclear research. The Federal Republic of Germany is roughly keeping pace with Great Britain and France in the civil area; With its expenditure per head of the population it reached the average of Western Europe. The performance level of research and development in the Federal Republic of Germany is nevertheless not completely satisfactory in individual areas compared with other Western European countries and the Soviet Union and overall unsatisfactory compared with the USA. Goal 1970 International comparison
12 Drucksache V / 2054 German Bundestag 5th electoral term Overview 2 International comparison of expenditure on research and development 1964 Country total expenditure 1) Mill $ in% of GNP 2) per capita of Be Mill $ including: civil sector% of column 1 per capita of the population $ Federal Republic of Germany, 4 3), 8 22 France 5),, 0 21 Great Britain,, 1 26 Belgium 5) 124 0.9 4), 5 12 Netherlands 314 1,, 4 25 Western Europe, 0 22 United States of America,, 5 73 Soviet Union 6),) Conversion according to the official exchange rate. In addition, however, the federal government contributes a quarter of its funding to the general research funding, which is implemented in close cooperation between the federal government and the states.
13 German Bundestag - 5th electoral term Drucksache V / 2054 Between 1964 and 1966, federal science expenditure rose by 31.9%. The federal government's contribution to general science funding (+ 59.3%) and the nuclear research and nuclear engineering development program (+ 39.9%) developed even more rapidly, while the defense research and development program had the lowest growth rate (+ 16.8 %). Corresponding to this uneven development, the proportions of the individual programs in science expenditure in the Federal Republic of Germany have shifted: The proportion of the General Science Funding program rose from 19.9 to 24.0%. Conversely, the proportion of defense research fell from 31.7 to 28.1%. General funding of science In the future, too, research will largely determine tasks, goals and methods for its work itself. It is an essential task of research policy to ensure that all sciences have the institutional and financial freedom of movement that is indispensable for such free development. This is to be achieved through the General Science Funding program. The recommendations of the Science Council for the expansion of universities in 1960 created a basis for a single-minded, long-term research policy. Between 1960 and 1966, for example, the federal states set up new posts at scientific universities. Between 1963 and 1966 alone, investments in scientific universities rose by around 115%. State and science Research and training capacity of universities Despite these efforts, it has not been possible to sufficiently increase the training capacity in the mass subjects. The recommendations made by the Science Council in 1960 were based on a guideline for university places 1). If the recommendations of the Science Council of 1967 are to be implemented around 1970, places at old and new universities will be available in addition to the previous reference value. The number of students at scientific universities around 1970 is expected to be around. The whole problem of the future development of our scientific universities arises from a look at the years around rising prosperity and growing demand for education and training will cause the number of high school graduates to rise. Today, around 80% of those entitled to study are enrolled at scientific universities and stay at the university for an average of 9.5 semesters. Student numbers around) see Federal Report Research I, p. 82
14 Drucksache V / 2054 Deutscher Bundestag 5th electoral term If nothing changes by 1980, but at the same time around 14% of the age group should acquire a higher education entrance qualification instead of 9, the number of students at scientific universities would be twice as high by the end of the next decade as today. Necessary structural changes to the university system It will not be possible to expand the scientific universities in such a way that they can accommodate such an increased number of students. The construction of scientific universities in the traditional sense (excluding clinics) currently costs at least DM 2 billion per student; Under these circumstances, the funds for a doubling of the number of study places by 1980 cannot be made available, especially since every investment still entails running costs of a corresponding size. In addition, there is also a lack of young academics for a corresponding increase in the teaching staff within the next decade. It is true that the full and systematic use of the available human and spatial resources could lead to a certain increase in the capacities of the scientific universities. Furthermore, by reducing the currently sometimes excessive study times to a normal level, the number of students could be reduced by a fifth. But these and other measures cannot nearly double the capacity of universities by 1980. Since a throttling of the educational expansion "in view of the increasing intellectual demands on the workforce in a highly developed industrial country makes little sense, measures must be taken to relieve the scientific universities in their training tasks. One possible solution is that (e.g. in the context of comprehensive universities ) In addition to the training courses that are primarily aimed at attracting young scientists, there are others that provide specialized training in non-scientific professions and an extended general education. In business and administration there is a growing need for versatile young university graduates who are capable to quickly acquire the specialist knowledge required for their work in the workplace. This type of training can also achieve a significant reduction in training costs: at universities of applied sciences, where students get to Graduated, fewer students drop out without exams - and no costly research is carried out, a graduate costs the public purse only about fifth of what a graduate of a scientific university costs. The growing number of students and the needs of government and business will make it necessary that an ever larger proportion of students go through such courses. This will have to lead to a restructuring of our higher education system, which also includes secondary education and further training measures. All of these problems
15 German Bundestag 5th electoral term Printed matter V / 2054 and aspects of future higher education structures can only be dealt with in a research report by the Federal Government in the form of questions. The responsibility for structural changes in the education system lies primarily with the federal states. The decision about these problems is, however, of great importance and urgency for the overall policy supported by the federal government, especially for economic, social and research policy. If bad investments are to be avoided, the planning ideas of the individual federal states (e.g. the school development plan and the university master plan for Baden Württemberg) must be coordinated with the ideas of the other federal states and placed in the framework set by the federal economic and financial policy. Even if the structures in higher education and education change, it will remain necessary to expand the scientific universities on a large scale. The Science Council recommends raising around DM 5.6 billion in public funds from 1967 to 1970 for the expansion of the existing scientific universities in order to modernize and expand the existing facilities; at the same time, the training capacity is to be increased by around university places. The Länder estimate the investment requirements of all scientific universities, including start-ups, required from 1965 to 1975 at around DM 20 billion *). The experience of the past decade shows that investments put an additional burden on the continuing expenditure of the scientific universities with amounts that can reach a quarter of the investment sum. If this development continues, investments of DM 20 billion over the course of the decade from 1965 to 1975 would result in a threefold increase in the continuing expenditures of the scientific universities. In the past decade (1956 to 1966) the continuing expenditure of the scientific universities has roughly tripled (from DM 625 million to DM 2.2 billion). The following measures therefore now appear urgent: 1. An early regulation of the participation of the federal government in the construction of new scientific universities. Classification of the state planning within the framework of overall policy. Connection recommendations of the scientific council and determination of the state's needs. Urgent measures 2. Accelerated expansion of the existing universities within the framework of three - Up to five-year financing plans that are coordinated between the federal states and the federal government and that take into account the priorities recommended by the - Wissenschaftsrat in order to avoid bad investments 3. Better systematic use of existing rooms and scientific equipment, especially with regard to the capacity of the lecture halls and laboratories Efforts to rationalize university construction (definition of uniform spatial programs, typification of institute buildings, construction in large series, application *) Section II A 2.4, p. 122
16 Drucksache V / 2054 Deutscher Bundestag 5th electoral term modern technical processes, in particular the use of prefabricated components) 5. The creation of a research network system structured according to regions, in which the research institutions inside and outside the universities are included Scientific universities with the aim of shortening study times. 7. Examination of the possibilities of supplementing training and further education through the use of forms of programmed teaching and distance learning. Increase in federal funding Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft Max-Planck Gesellschaft In view of the upcoming decisions on multi-year financial planning and in particular on the financial reform, a comprehensive reorganization for the financing of the expansion and construction of the scientific universities should be sought in negotiations between the federal government and the federal states. The federal government's services to expand the existing universities are carried out, for On the basis of the administrative agreement between the federal government and the federal states of June 4th, this agreement formally expired on December 31st, 1966, but the practice continues to follow its principles. The federal government has taken the initiative to conclude a new agreement and made proposals to the states. These proposals provide for a considerable increase in the financial performance of the federal government for the years 1968 and 1969, with the federal government promising fixed amounts, namely 630 million DM for million DM for the federal government in its proposal is based on the expectation that the total benefits of the federal states will have the same amount as the federal benefit in these years. The main focus of the activities of the German Research Foundation from 1964 to 1966, along with other work in oriented basic research, was predominantly in those disciplines and research areas that are important for coping with large public future tasks, such as nutrition research, air pollution control, water and noise research . At the suggestion of the Science Council, the German Research Foundation should - in future - take over the regular supervision and ongoing review of the special research areas of the universities recommended by the Science Council. According to the administrative agreement between the federal government and the federal states of June 4, 1964, both contracting parties each bear half of the subsidy requirements of the German Research Foundation. In 1967 the grant will be DM 156 million. In the reporting period, the Max Planck Society primarily promoted those areas of work in its 52 institutes
17 German Bundestag 5th electoral term Drucksache V / 2054 who had no or not enough development opportunities at the scientific universities. First and foremost, extraterrestrial physics, nuclear physics, plasma physics, metal research, but also biochemistry, molecular biology, immunobiology and psychiatry, as well as educational research and documentation are to be mentioned. With the establishment of the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, the Max Planck Society is striving to catch up with the international level of performance in this field. The Max Planck Society has also founded three legal institutes or taken over from scientific universities. Research in the field of foreign and international criminal law, foreign and international patent, copyright and competition law and European legal history is to be concentrated and intensified in these institutes. In the next few years, the focus of investments will be on building two institutional centers: the biochemical institutes in Munich and the institutes for biophysical-chemical work in Göttingen are to be combined in terms of space and organization. The subsidy to be raised by the federal government and the federal states is half in 1967: 190.5 million DM. Nuclear research and nuclear technology development The first phase of state funding for nuclear research and nuclear technology is nearing its end. In many areas the connection to the international level of performance was achieved. The planning, construction and operation of first-generation nuclear power plants has largely become a matter for the two partners, the reactor construction industry and the electricity supply company. The basis for funding research and development work at university and non-university institutes, in research centers, in industry and within the framework of international cooperation is the German Atomic Energy Program. In basic nuclear research, the Federal Ministry for Scientific Research primarily promotes high and low energy physics, plasma physics, nuclear solid-state research, radio, nuclear and radiation chemistry as well as nuclear medicine and radiobiology. This priority funding will have to be continued in the future if the investments are to be used and the level of performance achieved is to be maintained. The most important goal of nuclear technology remains the development of power reactors for a long-term and as inexpensive as possible energy supply as well as the creation of a nuclear technology industry that is competitive on your world market. The German industry is today in a position to develop nuclear power plants with basic research competitiveness of German nuclear power plants
18 Drucksache V / 2054 German Bundestag 5th electoral term to offer tried and tested light water reactors at home and abroad that are competitive with conventional thermal power plants. However, this unusual development must be made usable for the energy industry as soon as possible and lead to the construction of large nuclear power plants if nuclear energy is to be given a chance within the framework of energy policy. This is the only way to ensure the success of the state funding for reactor development in the first section of the nuclear program. *) Breeder development, fuel cycle, radiation use and safety measures In the current second section of the program, in addition to the development of advanced converters and their continuation to thermal breeders, the focus is primarily on the development of fast breeders. Not only do they suggest the cheapest electricity generation costs, they also allow the uranium to be exploited to a very large extent. Only through their use is a long-term energy supply secured with the previously known uranium reserves. With the use of larger numbers of nuclear power plants, the problem of the fuel cycle with its individual sections can be solved: the supply of natural uranium, the production of nuclear fuel and new fuel elements, the transport and reprocessing of irradiated fuel elements, refabrication, and industrial plutonium technology Scale and waste storage. The promotion of the associated development work will be a special focus of the German Atomic Energy Program in the coming years. Finally, the use of radiation from radioactive substances, which will occur in larger quantities in the future, as well as reactor safety and radiation protection bring further important and interesting tasks. The solution to these problems requires close cooperation between industry and nuclear research centers and coordination of the international and national activities of the Federal Republic of Germany in the German nuclear program. The federal government contractually refrained from developing and manufacturing its own nuclear weapons.The past has shown that the government development contracts abroad in the defense area have made a not insignificant contribution to promoting research and development in civilian fields of application as well. - This will be an occasion for the federal government to further increase the funding of nuclear research and the development of nuclear technology for peaceful use. The federal government spent 590.6 million DM on the nuclear research and nuclear development program, and in 1967 the federal budget provided 720.2 million DM. *) In the meantime, building decisions have been made for two 600 MWe nuclear power plants in Würgassen and near Stade. The two plants are scheduled to go into operation in 1972.
19 German Bundestag 5th electoral term Drucksache V / 2054 Space research Space research is still at an early stage of development in the Federal Republic of Germany. The imbalances in the promotion of this new technology between the leading world powers on the one hand and the industrialized western European countries on the other hand are more pronounced than was the case in nuclear research. International cooperation based on the division of labor is therefore the only way to realize costly space projects with limited national research and development capacities. The participation of the Federal Republic of Germany in ELDO, ESRO and CETS was a consequence of research policy in this situation. The European countries are dependent on cooperation within Europe or with the USA when carrying out large development projects. Funding to date has primarily focused on major areas of extraterrestrial research, such as geophysics and astrophysics, and in the technology required for exploring space, such as: B. the development and application of new materials, construction methods, energy sources, electronic components, as well as in the methods of planning and organization to achieve the international standard. Due to the level of performance achieved by the participating scientific institutes and industrial companies in this start-up phase, it is now increasingly turning to specific satellite and space probe projects France are to be exported are described in detail in the medium-term program for the funding of space research 1967 to 1971 including the necessary funds. Its financial framework is based on the current budget situation and the development to be expected according to the multi-year financial planning of the federal government German participation in the scientific experiments of the research satellites planned by ESRO, three German research satellite projects are planned in the national program, which will make a German contribution to research - the high atmosphere, the radiation belt surrounding the earth as well as geophysical and astrophysical investigations. The project of a solar probe is being discussed with the USA, which is to be launched around 1973/74 with an American launcher. In addition, German experiments are already being carried out to research the high atmosphere with high-altitude research rockets, which will yield valuable scientific findings. The medium-term program provides for the systematic expansion of these experiments. Development and start-up phase have ended with France. Medium-term program 1967 to 1971 individual projects
20 Drucksache V / 2054 German Bundestag 5th electoral term drove a television test satellite contractually agreed. This satellite, named SYMPHONIE, is to be launched in 1971 with an ELDO-PAS launcher. The launch of a physical-technical test satellite is still being considered for testing and proving the space suitability of newly developed technical components and assemblies. The medium-term program also provides for targeted measures to expand and improve the national space research infrastructure required for its implementation. Particular attention is paid to the promotion of young talent and professional training. In this context, agreements on training programs are to be made with other countries. International Cooperation Budget 1966 to 1971 The establishment of the European organizations ESRO and ELDO is essentially complete. The German participation in the development of the ELDO-A carrier system is satisfactory, while in ESRO the inclusion of both German scientific experiment proposals and the participation in development contracts for satellites and other scientific equipment does not yet quite meet expectations. The international telecommunications satellite consortium INTELSAT, founded in 1964, is preparing to operate a global commercial satellite telecommunications system. The European Conference on Telecommunication Connections by Satellite (CETS) was set up to coordinate European interests, both with regard to technical participation in this major project and with regard to the national plans for the use of satellites. Within this framework, in cooperation with ESRO and ELDO, considerations for a European development program are being employed. The federal government spent 173.2 million DM on the space research program, and around 280 million DM were made available in the federal budget for 1967. For the years, a total of DM 1.825 to DM 2.0 billion has been earmarked in the medium-term program for the promotion of space research, namely DM 1.825 billion for a core program and further funds for an additional program, the implementation of which depends on budgetary development and industrial capacity. Data processing Electronic data processing has a key position for business, administration and science today. The Federal Government therefore, following the example of other nations, considers state funding for research and development in this area to be necessary.
21 German Bundestag 5th electoral term Drucksache V / 2054 The Federal Ministry for Scientific Research, together with other federal ministries, has set up a program to promote scientific and technical performance in the field of data processing. Funding is provided through grants for research and future-oriented development within the framework of a five-year program, for which federal funds of an estimated 300 million DM will be required. The program is intended to improve the level of performance in the field of technology and system programming of data processing systems and to open up new application possibilities for public tasks. Five-year program In addition, the Federal Minister of Economics will grant loans as part of his economic policy task in order to promote the market-oriented and production-related development of IT systems for general technical and commercial needs. Research and development for defense The organizational structure of the Bundeswehr has largely been completed. In the wake of general political changes, the security policy of the Federal Government increasingly has to take into account new strategic considerations, which influence defense-related tasks. At the same time, it is necessary to constantly adapt the equipment and armament of the Bundeswehr to changing technical developments. This requires the prior funding of defense-oriented research projects. In addition, a great overall scientific and technical potential is necessary because it is one of the most essential prerequisites for a credible defense readiness. While the original equipment of the Bundeswehr is mainly carried out with the help of the purchase of weapons and equipment in friendly foreign countries, own developments are being carried out to an increasing extent and with increasing success, which stimulate science and technology in the Federal Republic of Germany (battle tanks, radio equipment, etc.) . Large and complex systems will continue to have to be developed in international cooperation with the full use of existing capacities and further development of their own capacities, due to the high costs. This is also useful because of the integration effect resulting from this and the associated gain in scientific and technological knowledge. In order to make a corresponding contribution to this international cooperation and also to be able to promote our own scientific and technical capacity, an ever larger proportion of the defense budget is being used for research and development. New political and technical developments. Demands on modern weapon systems
22 Drucksache V / 2054 Deutscher Bundestag 5th electoral term for science and defense The security of the Federal Republic of Germany is only guaranteed if weapon systems are ready for use or can be made ready for use in foreseeable periods of time that are state-of-the-art. The development of modern weapon systems from research to development, testing and production to operational readiness often takes a very long time. The danger is growing that such developments will be overtaken by new inventions and weapon systems even before they are completed. It is therefore becoming more and more important to carry out exploratory developments using modern planning methods and thus to research technological possibilities, even if it is not certain from the outset that the development result will lead to series production. This makes it possible to shorten the time span between the decision for a specific weapon system development and its operational readiness. To carry out its research program, the Federal Ministry of Defense works with around 120 university institutes, 65 non-university institutes, 7 modern research institutes of the Fraunhofer Society and the Astrophysical Society, the Oceanographic Research Institute of the Bundeswehr, the Franco-German Research Institute, which were founded on its initiative and are exclusively or predominantly financed in St. Louis and about 60 industrial companies together. In order to achieve the highest degree of flexibility and dynamism, the establishment of government-owned institutes was deliberately avoided almost entirely. Since military secrecy does not play the role that is often attributed to it (in the cooperation with the scientific universities only open topics are dealt with), most reports can be published and thus have a beneficial effect on the overall progress of science and technology. In 1966 the federal government spent 756.0 million DM on the defense research and development program (1967 federal budget: around 1 billion DM). Administration-related research Tasks The administration-related research has the first task of supporting the administration in its government activities. This happens, for example, in metrology and calibration, in the development of legal quality standards, health and food legislation, in establishing safety regulations, etc. Such problems, however, form only a small part of administrative research. Far more important is their function of contributing to the realization of departmental goals and future tasks. An efficient economy, the military security of the Federal Republic, one even with progressive integration of the agricultural market of the EEC
23 German Bundestag 5th electoral term Drucksache V / 2054 Administration-related research is now mainly carried out in special state institutes (e.g. federal agencies). In its recommendations for the expansion of research facilities outside the universities, the Science Council has set out the advantages and disadvantages of this form of organization in detail. The advantages are seen in securing staff, in the possibility of long-term work, in financing from just one source. Disadvantages can consist in the organizational immobility, in the lack of connection to other research institutions and especially in the risk of freezing if the institutes are subjected to the rules of the course of business that apply to administrative authorities without restriction. The Science Council therefore recommends examining the individual research institutions organized as federal or state institutes to determine whether this legal form is the organizational form that is appropriate for the tasks or whether they could better fulfill their tasks in a different legal form. " that it is oriented its task even more strongly than before to the major future tasks of the departments, that it is simultaneously given forms of organization that are appropriate to the respective research tasks and counteracts the rigidification and isolation as well as an aging of the staff mentioned by the Science Council a research network can be made possible, from which coordination with the institutes and the special research areas of the universities, the priorities of the German Research Foundation and the institutes of the Max Planck Society would result. At the request of the Federal Minister for Food, Agriculture and Forests, the Science Council presented a recommendation in 1966 to reorganize research in this ministry. The share of federal government spending on administrative research in federal science spending has steadily declined over the past few years. In 1967 the federal government spends DM 482.8 million on administrative research; that's 12.8% of their science spending. Competitive agriculture, an effective foreign and development policy, a modern social structure can neither be conceived nor realized without the help of science. Organizational form of the federal agencies Greater orientation towards future tasks Promotion of science by the federal states The science expenditures of the federal states increased by 37.4% in the reporting period (1964 to 1966); the share of these expenditures in the total budget of the federal states is from 6.2 to 7.2% priority in state budgets
24 Drucksache V / 2054 German Bundestag 5th electoral term increased. From this it becomes clear that the state governments have assigned a special priority to the promotion of science among their tasks and thus recognized the central role that the scientific universities play in the training of young scientists and in research in Germany. Expenditures by universities New forms of research and teaching The federal states increased the number of positions for academic staff at universities by 4,815 (18.6%) to around. Particular emphasis was placed on increasing the number of posts for a. o. Professors and other positions for permanent scientific and pedagogical tasks placed (+ 29.3%), while in the previous years the focus had been more on increasing the number of chairs and assistant positions. Between 1960 and 1966, the number of positions for scientific staff at scientific universities roughly doubled. This means that the recommendations of the Science Council of 1960 for the expansion of the university's staff have been exceeded in terms of the total number of positions set up. The increase in jobs has led to the fact that more than 4,000 people are currently employed full-time at individual universities (average at all universities: 3,150 positions). In many cases, the limits of the efficiency of conventional university administration have been reached. The great efforts of the federal states to expand the existing universities and to establish new universities are also reflected in the investments, which were increased by 121% in the reporting period. The federal and state governments have provided a total of DM 398 billion for investments in universities. The fact that investment has increased so much more than the number of posts for scientific staff shows how much the investment has had to be used to modernize existing facilities. New models of teaching and research organization are being tested in existing and new scientific universities. The changes in the faculty structure and the new forms of collaboration in research and teaching are particularly noteworthy here. At almost all universities, efforts are made to combine the institutes in various research and teaching areas into larger units (centers, sections, faculties, departments) which are under collegial management and to which the assistants and councils are partly assigned. This is supported by new buildings, as the institutes can be grouped around a core of common facilities. In addition, inter-faculty institutes have emerged in many places. New opportunities have also been opened up for the training of young researchers, as individual faculties have introduced new postgraduate courses (e.g. for regional planning) or advanced studies (e.g. for cybernetics). In this way, organizational prerequisites have been created in many faculties in order to respond to the tendencies of modern research towards interdisciplinary cooperation and the division of labor
25 German Bundestag - 5th electoral term Drucksache V / 2054 to pursue larger projects and to facilitate the proper administration of research institutions.The Länder estimate the investment requirements of the scientific universities for the period from 1966 to 1975 at around DM 20 billion (Table 18). Of this, around DM 15 billion is to be allocated to the expansion of the existing and around DM 5 billion to the implementation of the start-up projects. This requirement is distributed roughly evenly over two five-year periods. By 1975 DM 20 billion will only have to be raised if federal and state expenditures increase annually by around DM 100 million by 1975. In the same period, however, the Länder will also have to pay for the growing costs of the school system, which in 1966 already consumed 14.8% of the Länder budgets (1961: 13.1%). This results in the need for a coordinated long-term education and financial planning of the federal states, which is included in the economic and financial planning of the federal government. Particular emphasis must be placed on the consideration of the follow-up costs of introduced educational and university policy measures, if bad investments of a financial and personal nature are to be avoided. Outside of the universities, the federal states support a total of around 140 larger research institutions, some of them jointly through the Königstein Agreement, which has existed since 1949. In 1966, the federal states provided around DM 536 million for these research institutions supported by them (including their contributions to the German Research Foundation). Investment requirement 1966 to 1975 Research and development in the economy Today, competition is to a large extent competition for new goods and new technologies. For many companies, therefore, increased research and development efforts of their own are indispensable. Large companies set up their own research centers, also for basic research. The high level of research and development in some areas should not hide the fact that there are research-intensive branches of industry, such as B. the aircraft industry, which is significant for the future, but so far little developed in the Federal Republic. Research and development projects in the private sector are promoted primarily through special depreciation for depreciable fixed assets that are used for research and development. The 1964 Tax Amendment Act significantly improved the possibility of special depreciation. According to the Stifterverband für die Deutsche Wissenschaft (Stifterverband für die Deutsche Wissenschaft) in 1964, industry in Germany spent around DM 3.3 billion on in-house and community research, 33.6% of which in chemistry, 26.7% in electrical engineering, 16.4% in mechanical engineering and vehicle construction and 7% in the iron and steel industry. Increased research activity share of expenditure
26 Drucksache V / 2054 German Bundestag 5th electoral term Chemistry Electrotechnical industry Vehicle construction Mechanical engineering The high risk and the high costs associated with carrying out research projects in general have led to research and development being carried out primarily by large, financially strong companies . Companies with more than 2000 employees accounted for 4% of this expenditure. Community research offers some branches of small and medium-sized industry the opportunity to participate in technical progress. In addition, small and medium-sized companies can also carry out research and development work if they are complementary to research in large-scale industry and specialize in a few products. Chemistry is still the most research-intensive branch of industry. With a turnover share of less than 10%, it accounts for around a third of the research expenditure of the entire manufacturing industry. In the last ten years, products manufactured for the first time in the chemical industry accounted for around a third of sales. 65% of the research expenditure was accounted for by three large companies, which spend around 4.8% of their turnover on ongoing research expenditure. In 1965 the German electrotechnical industry spent almost DM 1 billion on research and development. It is characteristic of this branch of industry that the public purse takes a large part of the turnover, such as communications equipment, power stations and radar systems. While in the Federal Republic of Germany only about 16% of the total expenditures for research and development in the electrical engineering industry are borne by government agencies, in the United States the state finances about 60% of these expenditures primarily from funds from the defense budget and the space agency (NASA). Not least because of the lack of government subsidies, the German electrotechnical industry has lagged behind the United States in some areas of electronic data processing, radar technology and semiconductor technology. This backlog poses particular problems because this branch of industry occupies a key position within the overall industry. B. the facilities that are needed to automate production in other industries. According to the Stifterverband für die Deutsche Wissenschaft (Stifterverband für die Deutsche Wissenschaft), the expenditures for research and development in vehicle construction amounted to around 300 million DM in 1964. The work mainly concentrated on increasing the safety of automobiles and combating harmful emissions. In mechanical engineering, around DM 240 million was spent on research and development. Since this branch of industry contains companies that differ greatly in size and production program, general statements about the research and development intensity of mechanical engineering are not possible.
27 German Bundestag 5th electoral term Drucksache V / 2054 In 1964 the iron and steel industry spent around DM 230 million on research and development. Measured against the net production value, this is almost 2.4%. The aim of these efforts was the rationalization of process engineering and the introduction of new production methods under the pressure of growing overcapacities. In this way, it was possible to reduce the coke consumption for the production of pig iron to around half of the value that was still customary after the Second World War. The steel quality was considerably improved by the introduction of the oxygen blowing process. Iron and steel industry bottleneck "Research personnel Any research personnel policy must be based on the existence of scientific and technical personnel in the individual departments and sectors. In the Federal Republic of Germany, a total of people were active in research and development (including the humanities and social sciences). Around them were scientists. 50% of these scientists work at universities alone, 34% in business. It should be noted, however, that a large part of the work of scientists employed at universities is naturally attributable to teaching and examination duties active in the field of natural and engineering sciences, 16.5% in medicine and 15% in the humanities and social sciences. Agricultural sciences account for 4.5%. Around 28% of the natural scientists and graduates who are involved in research work at universities Engineers and almost 80% of the humanities and social scientists working in research. The economy employed 53% of the scientific and engineering research staff, the university-independent institutes around 19%. In France, the proportions of scientists and engineers working in the economy, in universities and in non-university institutes were equal. In the United States, 73% of research and development scientists, engineers, and social scientists were employed in business, 14% in academia, and 13% in non-university institutes. The recognition of the importance of research staff for economic growth and for solving major future problems has led to attempts in countries such as the USA, France and Great Britain to determine the future need for scientists and technicians. Due to the dependence of such forecasts on political, economic and technological developments, usable results can only be expected if the bodies on whose decision the need for qualified research personnel depends are also involved in their development. Determination of needs
28 Drucksache V / 2054 German Bundestag - 5th electoral term International comparison Shortage of young talent in the natural sciences Working conditions Resolutions of the Science Cabinet First indications for an estimate of the Federal Republic's need for research staff are provided by an extrapolation of past developments. Thereafter, a strong increase in the demand for qualified natural and engineering scientists must be expected. Comparisons with other countries lead to the same result. While in 1964 32 of the residents of the Federal Republic of Germany worked in research and development, there were only 28 in France, but around 35 in the Netherlands, 37 in Great Britain and around 60 in the USA: despite the increasing demand for natural scientists and engineers, the proportion of first-year students they accounted for remained roughly the same between 1960 and 1966 (around 30%). The relative share of students in these subjects fell from 34% to 29% during this period. With the growing number of students, the number of students in the natural and engineering sciences has also increased in absolute terms. Of the increase in the number of students that occurred between 1960 and 1966, however, students in the social sciences and humanities accounted for around 80% of the increase. In the future, school policy and the expansion of universities will have to meet the growing demand for scientists and engineers. However, research personnel policy must not be limited to training only a large number of people qualified for research. In addition, the work as a scientist in a research institution must also be designed to be attractive for young academics. The attractiveness of the research profession is strongly influenced by the available work opportunities and the working atmosphere. Outdated organizational forms of research institutions in the Federal Republic of Germany are critically assessed by foreign observers, but also by the scientists working in these research institutions. New research trends require new organizational forms, such as some of them have been developed in the Anglo-Saxon countries. In addition, only an appropriate and performance-based remuneration will ensure that the research institutions can attract and retain a sufficient number of qualified employees. Structural changes in wages in 1966, especially for the scientific and technical staff Working conditions - improved. In addition, resolutions of the Cabinet Committee for Scientific Research, Education and Training Funding provide for targeted salary improvements for the knowledge sc responsible and technical staff in the non-university research institutions. The federal and state governments must continue to ensure that the remuneration and supply of research staff is better adapted to the nature of the scientific work and that individual performance is also taken into account. With increasing professional life, the scientist working in industry or in international organizations usually has one in the salary development
29 German Bundestag - 5th electoral term Drucksache V / 2054 Advantage over scientists who are employed in publicly funded research institutions. Better scientific and professional development opportunities and, in some cases, higher funding have prompted many scientists, especially natural scientists and engineers, to emigrate. The brain drain, particularly to the United States of America, is a problem in all European countries with the exception of France and Italy. After a temporary decline in emigration from Germany to the USA, an increase in this number can be observed again from 1962 onwards. In the years from 1962 to 1964 alone, 1,069 scientists and engineers moved to the USA, including 253 chemists and 101 physicists. This corresponds to a share of 11.2% of the diploma examinations passed in the three years from 1962 to 1964 in the field of chemistry and 4.7% of the diploma examinations in the field of physics. Given Germany's need for qualified research personnel, the emigration of these natural scientists and engineers is a particularly serious loss. The federal government has drawn initial conclusions from this situation. Together with the federal states, science and industry, it will continue to endeavor to develop models for new, appropriate forms of organization that facilitate cooperation between neighboring institutes and disciplines, promote the independence of young scientists and improve the opportunities for up-and-coming young scientists. It will also support all measures that facilitate better permeability between research institutions inside and outside the universities. Emigration Consequences A rapid implementation of the recommendations of the Science Council for the expansion of universities by 1970, as well as the described improvements in working conditions for research staff in important sub-areas, will gradually lead to the emigration of scientists in the normal and welcome exchange of researchers within Western Europe and passes with the USA. In addition, the measures introduced to win back scientists who have emigrated will be increasingly continued. Science attachés in the most important industrialized countries could, in addition to their other tasks, also be of valuable help in determining the motives and forms of emigration and the countermeasures taken in other European countries. For research personnel policy, new opportunities can arise from the expanded tasks of the Federal Agency for Employment and Unemployment Insurance. In the future, the Federal Institute will conduct systematic labor market and occupational research. It is also intended to strengthen career counseling and education and
30 Drucksache V / 2054 German Bundestag 5th electoral term to expand service advice in line with the recommendations of the Science Council. Furthermore, more precise and more detailed research personnel statistics are required, for which there is currently no legal basis in the Federal Republic. This would make it possible to carry out regular needs assessments. A research personnel register should be set up using preliminary work by the Federal Statistical Office and the Science Council. Only with such statistical documents is it possible to check the effectiveness of research personnel policy measures. Outlook Implementation in political and economic practice Connection between research and educational planning Performance level More planning The ability of German politics to act is increasingly influenced by the potential in research and development as well as by the willingness and ability to systematically implement scientific findings in economic and political practice. The Federal Republic of Germany is less prepared than some comparable industrialized countries to tackle future tasks in research and development. Research policy over the next few years must, to a greater extent than before, include increasing the number of research personnel as well as their more effective use and better training and further education in their considerations. Educational planning and research planning require and complement each other. The increasing individual demand for university places and the need for university graduates must be taken into account in the planning considerations as well as the need to keep university research functioning, which is of particular importance for the training of young researchers. Compared to the situation when the Federal Report on Research I was published, the Federal Republic of Germany is on the way to catching up with the international level of performance in areas such as nuclear and fusion research, molecular biology or radio astronomy. However, in other areas such as data processing, aerospace technology or applied social sciences, the gap has widened further for the time being. New gaps are emerging in some future tasks. When the rate of growth in the economy slows down and there is less room for maneuver in public budgets, the funds for research and development must be increased far beyond the average growth rates of public budgets. The federal financial planning up to 1971 takes this into account. At the same time, the changed economic situation and increasing competition on the world market are forcing long-term framework planning in research.
31 German Bundestag 5th electoral term Drucksache V / 2054 schung as well as on the more considered and effective use of funding. While international cooperation in research and development, which is not based on intergovernmental agreements, poses few problems, intergovernmental cooperation is in some cases still unsatisfactory. The Federal Republic of Germany aims to streamline intergovernmental cooperation through the European Space Conference, the permanent Franco-German ministerial meetings and the OECD Research Ministers' Conference.The merger of the executives of the EEC, EURATOM and the coal and steel union also serves this purpose. The Councils of the Three European Communities have called for vigorous action to be taken to intensify research and innovation in the industrial field. The Federal Government is of the opinion that the conditions and details for cooperation in the technological field should soon be specified more precisely. In September 1966, an inter-ministerial working group was therefore given the task of examining the expediency, areas and forms of closer European cooperation in research and development and of drafting the main features of a European policy in this area based on the division of labor. International cooperation In order to participate in the research results of the leading states in the fields of the new technologies in the exchange of knowledge and services, it will be necessary to facilitate and promote European cooperation also in internal research and development. Scientific and technical cooperation will strengthen the political and economic conditions for European cooperation.
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