What is Cohen's worst testimony against Trump

Herman Sörgel's "Atlantropa" between technocracy and political utopia

Table of Contents

1. Abstract

2. The construction of Herman Sörgel
2.1. Diameter
2.1.1. Freud's ‘shadow
2.1.2. The architect
2.1.3. Schwabing bohemian
2.2. radius
2.2.1. the decline of the West
2.2.2. Edison in Pan America

3. The mega project "Atlantropa"
3.1. elements
3.1.1. Made of clay, Homunculus
3.1.2. Shadow cut - edge figure - god's spark
3.1.3. On the cataract: river shape
3.1.4. The Promethean conquest of the heat form
3.1.5. Becoming green
3.2. entropy
3.2.1. excess
3.2.2. Tumult
3.2.3. Decay
3.2.4. catastrophe
3.3. regeneration

4. Utopia: Technica
4.1. idol
4.1.1. (Non) plus ultra
4.1.2. Category mata
4.1.3. Trilogy (20,000 miles into the future)
4.1.4. New Hope
4.1.5. State of the art
4.2. The Faustian
4.2.1. Copula: is, moment, moment
4.2.2. Original fist
4.2.3. Front type
4.2.4. Criticism of the original elements
4.3. Counter tension
4.3.1. Grand failure?
4.3.2. White elephants
4.3.3. A place in the Sun
4.3.4. The post-colonial status quo
4.3.5. "Shadow globalization"
4.4. Driving through the pillars in literature
4.4.1. The virtuosity of Amadeus
4.4.2. Appearance of the billionaire
4.4.3. Of German-titanic super weapons
4.4.4. Postal agency, superhero, superpower

5. The beginning of the future
5.1. Futurology
5.2. The eternal limits of growth?
5.3. scenario
5.3.1. Early technocracy
5.3.2. Renewed Nazi atmosphere
5.3.3. The master's pupil in "Auerbachs Keller"
5.3.4. Conservative Frankfurt School
5.4. Scenario creation & risk research

6. The Anthropocene
6.1. Probing
6.2. Provincial energetics
6.3. The spirit of the past & the future

7. Event horizon
7.1. Migration flows
7.2. The will to power

8. The Tao of the machine

9. Bibliography

I'll join the hills that bind the Afric shore,

And make that country continent to Spain,

And both contributary to my crown:

The Emperor shall not live but by my leave,

Nor any potentate of Germany.


1. Abstract

The present thesis would like to deal with a megalomaniac project of superlatives: Atlantropa. It is about the unification of no more, but also no less than two continents into one supercontinent. At least that's what the Munich architect and self-chosen world architect Herman Sörgel, who brought a good dose of idealism with him throughout his life, came up with it. After a look at vita, career and historical background, the contextualization of the visionary in the spiritual space, the gigantic work - just as it would have established the claim for unity between Africa and Europe - between technocracy as a real possibility and utopia qua purely pious A dream can be settled without overlooking the fact that this could actually correspond to the spiritual topography.

At no time were there really technical concerns in the way of the implementation in principle, then rather political hurdles, but also problem areas still to be clarified. We then follow the undertaking through three historical caesuras, so to speak, the “golden twenties” and their eternally repetitive founding period, the “boom”, through the horrors of the Nazi regime, into the cold disillusionment of the “zero hour” and the renewed one Reconstruction of the rubble time. In a next step we deal with the underlying undercurrents of the world situation, which for the first time had to be so exhausted in its global horizon if one were to believe its ideological “leaders”. Not only unemployment in the shadow of the economic crisis, the instability of two devastating wars, but also the transition from imperialism and in its wake - colonialism to totalitarianism must not be ignored. Becoming in any case, at least since Spengler the central concept of the recording of large-scale cultural areas, was to be seen here as a recipe for pacifism, accelerated European unification and struggle processes, even international balance and geopolitics down to their historical depths and then even to self-sufficiency that is worth striving for.

Embedded in the explicitly technological history of utopia, it is worth making a comparison with similarly wide, large, or highly conceived throws of their kind. Or, as in the case of Atlantropa, of all dimensions involved. Whether it is the actually implemented land expansion of Holland, the extensively designed infrastructure measure in Tennessee or the “water management hub of the Three Gorges Region”, which was only fully connected to the grid in 2008, in the vernacular Three Gorges Dam, the examples are countless, in the proverbial sense boundless. Behind this, of course, was the same vision at all times, as a blueprint, as it were. The partly blind belief in technology and the associated optimism for progress have always been an important factor in human development, easily demonstrable by means of a monumental historical conception, not least of which is the dream of perpetual motion machine was nourished, as it is undoubtedly already approximately cosmically given for our scale and only has to be transformed down to our world - by the "deus ex machina" of course. The ideal of the future, however, remains a constant projection surface.

On the other hand, you can't just dream away, unless you are a formative god - you have to come up with a precise and meticulously executed plan that covers all the subtleties and imponderables as far as possible. In advance, because otherwise there can never be a practical implementation. Once technocratically determined, one is then, however, first of all in path dependency - tautologically up to the next GAU (greatest accident to be assumed) at the latest and, due to the principle of inertia, often beyond. Of course, the “stupidest user to be assumed” is often powerless to counter this. Up to now, however, technology first had to go through various stages, in rough steps from industrialization and evolving automation, to controlling and regulating cybernetics of "self-reflective" systems, perhaps Asimov's axioms, to futurology and considerations of autopoesis as the always inherent borderline experience Systems, the computer-aided assessment of the anticipated future consequences in approximate or at least clear models and much more importantly - scenarios.

At this point in time, the environment was still neglected as a major item of externalized costs, as it was mostly up to this point in time. This does not mean that there was no corresponding awareness in the past, but its rudimentary presence sometimes tends to lessen technically close any difficulties to be solved, which could then presumably be "resolved" in a further technical process. It must be taken into account that with the entry into the so-called "Anthropocene", humans have first and foremost reached a level at which they not only have a significant influence on their own living and thus evolutionary conditions, but also just as easily lead to self-destruction[1] is capable.

In the end, as is so often the case in a world, however processualized, as a construction site, the "Tao of the machine" remains, i.e. the spirit that inspires the machine, that has been inspired by the spirit and, ideally, not by the "spirit in the Machine"[2] is plagued, i.e. code segments that appeared spontaneously from the beginning, as the cinematic ripper wants to teach us. The main research question may be whether our existence, in its aspects accessible to our intervention options, is already racing towards perfection or optimization, as the current modus operandi wants, or whether it is still macroscopic concepts and above all designs of all kinds requires an incremental readjustment little by little not, under certain circumstances, lacking the prospect of a disaster, which she negligently allows her to steer in a bad modus vivendi. The question of the big hit instead of the small pebbles, which at best should be allowed to get rolling. The investigation is rounded off due to the current situation, not least by the fact that the Mediterranean has come into focus again in the course of the migration challenge - after having tried it again and again with a dodging, but full-sounding regime draft - yes itself meanwhile represents a new, no longer just smoldering and no less again Atlantropa can therefore enjoy a certain renaissance, especially when Munich itself was not able to attract the attention of the world public on such a high scale for once in a bad context. And who knows what a cautious and admittedly purely speculative look over the event horizon might not promise or reveal, however much?

2. The construction of Herman Sörgel

2.1 diameter

2.1.1 Freud's ‘shadow

On April 2nd, 1885, Herman Sörgel was born in Regensburg. His monocle was only later to become his trademark. It was the supreme time of Bismarck, but also of the empire. So that too formed Empire - especially as an art & culture style - a lifelong passion.

But first to his father, Hans Ritter von Sörgel, who had been raised to the personal nobility of the Kingdom of Bavaria. The title was not hereditary, however, a phenomenon that in turn bothered Herman in that it was all the more difficult for him to maintain the embodied and learned claim of blue blood - he basically couldn't make it any further than the Schwabing bohemian. That doesn't necessarily mean that he was a parvenu - it just wasn't made easy for him to live it savoir-vivre of the parental home. Sörgel senior had just built the Walchensee power plant as the top construction manager in Bavaria together with Oskar von Miller almost overnight.[3] And without accusing him of a lack of emancipation, the course had already been set, so to speak, or the channels for water drainage had already been dug, in the course of an industrial revolution, which for the Sörgels was primarily noticeable in the already soaked footsteps of a hydroelectric boom. On the contrary, less like Kafka, who for reasons of the zeitgeist perhaps looks a little like him, almost of the same thing Type is, and fatally failed due to the conflict with his father, Sörgel outdoes him - quite Freudian, one would like to smile - even if “only” in the imagination.

Whereby we always introduce a capital “first”, a “cursory” of a fundamentally open future and then always have to think about it, especially when one takes into account the lead times of major technical projects, which are often centuries long. Sörgel then surpasses his father in a certain way, he will never completely break away from his preferred spell. Two ambitious, because rejected, dissertations, which the professional orthodoxy of architecture seem to have disliked at all, nonetheless followed an even more remarkable career, even from an academic point of view. So the parricide in the primal horde has taken place. He also had the connections from his father, it is also the time of the big rackets, which dawns and, with the American neologisms, spills over the Atlantic with the bow wave of Prohibition, so to speak.

He will submit to Weber's steel-hard casing in the most radical way as a material that will then be used with moderate success in tanks. His first rejected doctoral thesis was later than Introduction to Architectural Aesthetics: Prolegomena to a Theory of Architecture published and thus achieved the breakthrough, if not yet the big one. His second work on the importance of concave spaces was also not intended to arouse satisfaction in the eyes of the examiners, a motif which Spengler will have identified as the primordial symbol of the Orient. The conflict with the university itself is in turn the one seen here in the infinitesimal line of flight with the father, which is measured against the old scores and course spirit records, which one must first refute in their potential inferiority, even if it is with the gentle force of the better Argument under which the opposite should have to remain silent. Ergo, he is only consistent where he is considering a reform of the grammar schools and also acknowledges his lecturing in Bamberg at the master school for building craftsmen with a corresponding reform of uniform organization.

He was particularly interested in the integration of the three levels of the building industry at that time, as it was structured between masters, builders and finally their coronation - the architects. Of course, just as it was already intended in its aesthetics, art and construction should harmoniously unite, yes, it basically defines the term bauhaus for themselves. As a third requirement, he asks for precise curricula, which he himself presents in detail. There should be explicitly no "utopian experiments"[4] instead, he wants everything to be formulated, on all paths, to be brought together in a synthesis. When it comes to a strict "screening of student material"[5] is ordered, he finds himself (and especially she!) already completely attached to the real thing. This is followed by numerous activities for relevant scene magazines in Munich, both editorial and freelance.[6] Ultimately, he also took the completely logical conclusion here and founded his own journal, “Baukunst”. In addition to his critical and debating approaches, there are also his own architectural publications, namely Residential houses and The house for the weekendwhich are primarily intended to serve the “little man” (he still emphasizes the need to consult an architect, with all his love for the client's ideas) and in which he again speaks out against the floor speculators and the even more frequent building lions - yes who have actually already driven everything into bankruptcy in imperial Berlin and are possibly slowly reaching for Munich.

The initial proportions are correspondingly modest, here everything that is not absolutely necessary is cut out and is thus already proving to be of enormous contemporary relevance for minimalist integral solutions, but also from the other side, the most banal problems in building science today suggest how catastrophic The living conditions must have been, from overcrowding, bad air, poor hygiene to a separate room for the farm animals, which no longer everyone can afford, or which simply does not belong to the "state of the art" in the traditional conditions . The fact that he retrospectively extends his history of the first workers' settlements back to the Fugger period and also takes into account the genesis and evolution of the medieval townhouse, among other things, shows that he has a solid technical competence. Basically, after two world wars, he ends up here again in the early ecological garden and arbor movement, just like fencer in the "climbing pole".[7] Namely, where you arrive after all the money on the cigars has been infected on the stock exchange. And the Titanic, the "unsinkable" one, goes down with caviar, champagne and a piano concert, as we are taught in several places. So one can say that he, too, noted from the beginning a "discomfort in culture", which he wants to take hold of all the strings that are important to him.

But Sörgel is far from stopping here. The tireless hamster wheel keeps turning, the “rat race” wants to be won, no matter what the cost, losses are to be bravely accepted for the sake of the higher anticipated good. Then come the Errors and peculiarities in building, his first (still provisional) bridge to Atlantropa. There are namely some intermediate steps of transformation and "dream interpretation"[8] necessary in order to achieve the necessary tension to project such a gigantic imaginary, even visionary force into the at least planned reality, to breathe life into it.

In 1925, Herman Sörgel embarked on a trip to America on the maiden voyage of the "Berlin"; it was not known whether it was an advantage. Just as the parallel to Kafka again[9], a popular intellectual genre at least since Tocqueville, with which one also makes a certain academic policy statement - very similar to the classic educational trip. Of course, he was inspired by the skyscrapers there.[10] He had the opportunity to get to know Hugh Ferriss in his studio in the penthouse in New York, and later launched him exclusively in Europe. Here he underlined above all the visionary kinship in the struggle for the architectural ideal beyond the day-to-day operations on the construction site and far beyond Europe. What really mattered, however, was his visit to the Pan American House in Washington. Here, for the first time, the proverbial light must have literally dawned on him, even if perhaps still largely unconscious that America will become a supercontinent in the long term, at least that is his reception and interpretation of the intended symbolic meaning. Consequently, he will make it his life's task to establish Europe in a similar long-term with a future in order to continue to be a cultural area - we mentioned Spengler already briefly - between the transatlantic pioneer and the "yellow danger", as he will unfortunately repeatedly express himself unnecessarily pejoratively to be able to claim.

Concrete plans then emerge from 1927, Christmas, as the founding myth would like it to be. He in turn sets these apart in a number of major works, some of which are designed in such a way that they should each form the first volume of a series, whereby one can assume that some drafts have been overtaken by the world-changing conditions, or else the workload even for the hardworking loner Sörgel at some point it was no longer manageable alone. In the appendices, however, one is definitely advised to get the desire for more (here even: the sea) and not so sure whether the equally inexpensive panel construction of the Adriatic is anticipated, or whether one already sat on the early collecting game concept where the The packaging still looks new and promising, but many things never got beyond the announcement of the sequel and the actual content of the pact is ultimately disappointing here and there, many things have already been drawn twice and three times while waiting for the rare novelty.

So he presented the project for the first time in 1929 Mediterranean subsidence, irrigation of the Sahara before, in which it still operated under the name Panropa. 1932 followed Atlantropa, probably his main work and the heart of it all. Because as early as 1938, at the latest in the subtitle, the new and contaminating breath of the seizure of power can be felt in the neck, The three big "A" s. Greater Germany and the Italian Empire, the pillars of Atlantropa. His cycle closes with a commemorative publication for the 25th anniversary, Idea and power, which is intonated accordingly grandiose to the song on Atlantropa, still suggests from the title and ultimately remains clearly stuck to the Odic. Here, finally, Herman's old work can be loosely linked, namely Traces, steps and shores, which still remains true to a vague Atlantropa reference, but also has many personal impressions about nature, God and the world, kept just as clearly in the Nordic style, which can not only be easily read from the Fraktur, but above all the meter is based on common scripts of the Germanic cultural area. Here Sörgel is totally at home, almost in cosmic harmony and harmony with space.

At this point one can perhaps also draw a bumpy parallel to the Soviet consecration of large monumental buildings[11]which are then later not only embellished poetically with a tendency towards the pictorial, but also graphically and painterly and in fact the interspersed technical terms seem bizarre, like a concrete block suddenly appearing in the landscape, still through an art-in-building -Color facade in poor almost-Technicolor shines. Nevertheless, that might come closest to the, why not, real socialist reality in upheaval.

One or the other “spin-off” has to round off this overview of works: so there was what was held to be popular science for good reason Atlantropa ABC, of course the magazine of the Atlantropa Institute itself, which, like numerous press articles, evidently aimed to keep the current audience engaged. For this purpose there were 8 editions, two of which were double editions, available for 1.20 DM. The inherent contradictions of the topic, like Sörgels himself, become immediately apparent when it says in edition one on page eleven: “So there is an interest To destroy areas where only black people can live alone. ”He then dedicates issue 3/4 to Einstein, Gandhi and Bruckner with no apparent logical problems.[12] Sörgel couldn't avoid propaganda either, who, completely in sync with the zeitgeist, will also experience her great moment in the film with him. Isn't that a little bit the star, to whom he has already become and in whose shine his "followers" can participate, if they have not long since become icons themselves, one confirms one another's choice and how it all too is known from the guru, mentor, prophet of this or that variety?

2.1.2 The architect

But first of all: what was Sörgel's architecture about? His was already addressed aestheticswhich is still completely dedicated to the classical and is now available again as an albeit carelessly reissued and accordingly difficult to read replica without double umlauts. In terms of content, it is also a response to the greats of the subject and the time, the conflict with the "father" wants to drag on to the next chapter - as Mann confirms to us again. At the beginning, Sörgel emphasizes the freedom of architecture, which, however, has to be reconciled with the material constraints, not least in theirs Elements, maybe the Basic motif of the architecture.

Imagination was important to him, too, which collides with the immanent will of the material - Wölfflin should be mentioned here - the goal would be design. Yes, one could already estimate the taming of the speculated particles here. Mention should be made of the attitude towards life of an epoch, i.e. again the spirit of the times, which does not, however, coincide with the spirit of art. Individuality would find its limit where it neglects the laws, Sörgel speaks of arbitrariness, intellectual wealth, caprice.

But one does not serve "for the sake of the once firmly fixed system"[13]. Architecture is the work of man, the product of human strength. Art is a “gift of gods”, technology “human struggle”. Accordingly, face each other forcibly and freely. However, aesthetics depict more than just the purpose; it actually only begins where the creative spirit can be felt. However, it shouldn't be undead virtuosity either. Because architecture is a craft, you automatically have a "certain fluidity of the human hand"[14] inside. Technology ends the supposed arbitrariness of nature by force. In the ideal case, one must say that it creates new, different constraints as a substitute. The fact that "higher powers" rule through the artist in a next step almost borders on voodoo, the striking display of the individual is mannerism for him. Is it even a "mannerism", a compulsive display? Because: the aesthetics of the building must remain autonomous. But it is always important to look at the purpose, material and construction. A modern anarchist reading cannot be meant by this. Rather, it is an autonomous purpose, which may mean: independent manifestation. Top performance becomes (automatically?) Zeitgeist, also in terms of feeling, understanding and judgment.

This is followed by reflections on spatial psychology. Awe is an issue for him, security, characteristics in their beauty and grandeur. But with all this, architecture remains unfree because of its reality. It is important to transfer the severity from the work form to the art form. It is precisely in the technical that the artistic emerges. Ironically, in the literal sense of the word, Sörgel experiences the world completely new from the introduced image of the >> wagon <<, both mentally and on the path of the mind and the eye. Presumably this corresponds exactly to the spirit of the industry. In the future, he would like to integrate the individual and the overall perception, he cuts the convex and the concave for the first time in a verifiable manner on a large scale (but it also gives him the neutral), wants the "sublime, titanic", not people [sic!] , make it a measure of what distinguishes him, for example, from Hocheder on this point. Then he also addresses the function of the Wall and performs the related Lack of space into his thinking. We will have to come across this term more often. Sörgel's building regulations, on the other hand, extend to the plastering technology, later to the stove model that can be used, you can probably only figure this meticulous attention to detail in the context of the entire state of the lively debate of his time, he was quite involved and full of fiery zeal, yes, takes it himself the entire space to be filled in and expands it bit by bit.

The next passage is also beautiful and actually already the solution to the riddle: "One should not work in a fight with the machine, but in league with it."[15] And immediately afterwards it will say: “You have to carry within yourself the yardstick for the powers of the inner forces of an iron structure in order to feel its full beauty.” Here, of course, reinforced concrete is representative of the industry as a whole, and therefore of the new emerging Construction methods, namely that bauhaus. In any case, Wikipedia wants Sörgel to be stylistically sorted here, as a variety of Expressionism.[16] But you can diversify that even more differently. This is the case with Voigt, for example, besides Gall one of the few works that explicitly only dealt with Atlantropa, initially abstracted from a much more recent master's thesis from Knoxville, a work on aesthetics that was ongoing until recently and other projects in the making.[17]

There further data on the vita and from a genuinely architectural-genetic perspective the exact “who's who” around and with Sörgel, of whom only the most important further stations are to be mentioned here: the best known among them probably Gropius, Höger, Mies van der Rohe . The latter, however, left it at a promise of cooperation. Höger had just made his big breakthrough with his Chilehaus, and from now on he played in the “Big Game”.

Gropius gave the Bauhaus its name, so to speak, and indeed for modern architecture in general. The Weimar artistic manifesto soon came into use in Dessau, as you can read at Scheiffele. While Gropius was primarily interested in organizing the construction process, Junkers liked the technical house more. From the airplane to the metal house should be industrially manufactured. Whether it was a house factory or a test construction site, not only the Fordist series production was close, but also the garden settlement that Sörgel and Fechter encountered again, as well as the model house. The first systematic building research was, according to Peus, “pragmatic”, but one also had to deal with a kind of utopian thinking in the sense of a world language.[18] The school “philanthropin” made use of the quasi-Kantian imperative “do not waste energy!”. The “war” meant a “caesura”, even a relapse, as it were, between “dawesplan and dollar sun”. The “antagonists of modernity” played a “terrorist variant”, while at the early turning point in '27 Gropius stated: “The time of manifestations for new building, which helped clarify the intellectual foundations, is over.” Ehrenburg said that Dessau dared more than Paris and Moscow. The worker was at the center of an energetic and monism surrounded by entropy. While Ostwald heralds the solar age with his color wheel, you are dealing with a forerunner of the “Club of Rome”, to which you have to leave the synergies of a “bucky” Fuller as well as the third dimension as well as the world language Ido or the normalia of one DIN world format.

A new, practical form of organization had been found in the workers' print shop, consumer association and people's house, but Gropius himself was no longer allowed to go to Tivoli. Here, too, the tongue-R finds its early appreciation.[19] The FJTeLbeRG, which we meet again later in Mann, must serve as an example of font optophonetics that culminates in the airplane, indeed in suprematism in fact unity with futurism. Correspondingly, the abstract flight route network, completely analogous to the emerging aviation language.[20] The Anhalt Settlers Association is already very close to the garden city, as is the Oktogon and - this time - Leopold Fischer. Loos is already turning against the Bauhaus myth and the romanticism of constructivism, since they are no better than an ornament romanticism.[21] Bernburg speaks of a "zigzag house", for Peus it is simply "mass saving" between marks and pennies. The smallest house is the slim, growing house according to Martin Wagner around ’32, at the height of the global economic crisis. The proposal of the actual house factory to Junkers will at least lead to the metal house, in a “triple tension” of mathematical-astronomical designs between earth, moon and sun with prismatic windows.

Perhaps one can already construct a “Big Five” here, as New York will later know. Back to Sörgel - Le Corbusier, however, did not want to - we will meet him again later. In addition to Höger, Döllgast and Welzenbacher in particular provided sketches, Behrens and Fahrenkamp as part of their master classes. The "name dropping" is much longer, whether Poelzig, Oud, van Eesteren, Schumacher, Haesler, Schneider, Vorhoelzer, basically it would be easier to ask who was not there.

Lesser known local giants, the Association of German Architects, many took on this or that sub-project. In any case, dew is still of central importance. He had learned from Fischer, who was responsible for the main development plan for Munich at the time, exactly how he did for an entire generation of architects and his colleagues, in addition to Welzenbacher and Oud, also included Bonatz - another of the few who gave Sörgel a clear rejection when he was spoken to . You can see how the "usual suspects" are at work. So everyone knew everyone and the whole scene was still manageable. However, Taut was important because of his pioneering role, and Sörgel should then deepen his exploratory footsteps. Mendelsohn deserves special respect, as he made reference to Atlantropa in a very prominent place. But for the time being, the circle is roughly complete, with some names from the updated “architectural aesthetics” merely embedded in their immediate context.

In order to bring the idea to an end there, one has to recognize how the architect deserves the credit, but is even more obliged to represent epochs as a whole, to put stamps and names on them. Actually that is again idiomatic in the strict sense, after all, no period, however extensive, is objective in itself - in comparison to what. Building houses becomes the "bearer of ethical values". But neither should it be mass production. Precisely in their monumentality they are ultimately always based on human dimensions (and if only to make him, the human being, appear small on the other hand, one might add, if one adds him as a miniature figure at the end for purposes of comparison). Nevertheless, people remain active in architecture, an almost too daring admission, there has to be clarity and clarity in the orientation.

Care must be taken that the old does not steal the market from the new. Conversely, one must not close oneself to the foreign influences of earlier times. Sörgel's genius loci is a special term; one actually wants to compare it with deconstruction. As it is about the context that sometimes obliterates the author, here it is the “spirit of the locality”, not yet so attached to the virtual. But even here it is becoming more and more difficult to insert the new, maybe that's why the flight into (especially Baudrillard’s) cyberspace will soon be there. Yes, being able to “fit in” itself becomes the yardstick for force vectors and optional brackets. Sörgel quotes Goethe on this; a city that happened to be swept up with a broom is compared there with a bear dance and monkey leaps. Maybe this is already the anticipated soul animal of the rough north and the wild south, did the old master have the right intuition in anticipation? So is it old or new, and if so, to what extent? Sörgel then introduces the dualism of convention and intention in order to unite the individual in the typical, i.e. to make it manageable again as a category.

Then once again the death of the originals as well as the creative power is ascertained, already now, one should actually say, depending on the direction of reading. Whereby “new” functions fulfill a new style. And the categorical imperatives go even further: the climax of an overall culture has to be reflected in the architecture, the calm is to be seen as a contrast to the technical haste, even back then. The attempted synthesis between the polarities in the area of ​​restoration is interestingly observed - just as we appreciate the ancient statues without color, as "originals" mind you, he calls the "Gothic" buildings in their weathered, aged condition as the epitome of Gothic, that is but probably more than a barely audible difference. He also adds the war as destruction to abundance in poverty, does one have to have received the embodiment of his time as a ruin? Jünger would say yes, Baudrillard too, if both the WTC has earned its Hollywood-style Special-FX and the previous film, so to speak en passant Like Biosphere II, the desert in its copy of the original and Pompeii the Petrification. This, too, is probably a kind of the aforementioned genius loci, the bomb complements the terrorist, the plaice compliments the polar bear. Strictly evolutionistically fitted into the respective niche.

Nonetheless, the agreement of the common sense of style with the respective architectural styles remains a tightrope walk, which in retrospect probably goes at the expense of Sörgel's own argumentation, too little individuality up to blind torch totalitarianism, while post-postmodernism is only back in its "state of the art." “-Degenerations of their establishment dares to do something - insofar and insofar as the wallet allows it. Or then again deliberately boring, because you can afford it. But then you would be back to the New Objectivity since the Bauhaus, in an intermediate transformation perhaps “International Style”. From there we only want to continue in small steps for the time being, Sörgel demands "the universal approach to all spiritual threads and potencies of the time"[22]. For him, urban planning remains the “highest and most expressive symbol of a culture”.

State life must be taken into account, the prevailing worldview, the social conditions. But here, too, like the empire as a whole, it is dangerously close to National Socialism, when “the highest and final demands of architecture” can only be met by a state social power, so Sörgel is so completely un-American and “untrusted”. So completely unprivatised and yet again cartel-like. But the call for something new is often perceived as heretical. This also anticipates the guided path dependency in historical trajectories.

Will eclecticism then remain the last of the highlights? Is it objectivity, naivety or monumental style? But there also remains social struggle, independence and ferment on the one hand, community feeling and originality on the other hand, which was sufficiently discussed in the context of community versus society according to Tönnies, not least found its late reflex in Rawls and Taylor and certainly also an architectural trend of its own. one component still has to correspond, as the simplest possible contrast, a settlement architecture and a bonzen villa.

It is no coincidence that Gebhardt introduces the well-known distinction between cold and hot, which McLuhan will also revisit, based on the "Eastern eggs", which Ebersbach even dubbed the "Negroes of the nation". The Communist Manifesto had destroyed all feudal ties, including all patriarchal and idyllic conditions, but ultimately only led to Weimar's community radicalisms.[23] Here, too, the city is intended again as a “jungle”, “urban asphalt”, “steppe”, “ice desert”, “glacier” and the like. Freyer may already be in mind, but above all an enthusiasm for the Middle Ages, whose architecture dates back to early in the so-called roof war ends. While appropriately identified “un-German influences” are considered to be the American machine cult, the church should have been left in the village instead of falling into a “reactionary modernism” after failure. But some saw this as the great alternative to the Bauhaus, and numerous joint experiments followed.

But Sörgel, too, will soon question the national feeling even more, and the “immense responsibility of architecture” will then fall at the expense of Europe. Without much thought, however, one can already throw the “artistically uneducated speculators” overboard, because the main obstacle to recovery [sic!] Is a lack of awareness. The whole space should be taken into account, not just the beautiful perspective. And ergo, the whole visible world has to be designed.

So much for Sörgel's starting point. It is questionable whether the work was worth rejecting. Basically, Sörgel sets up a kind of decalogue of architecture, thus already indicating the coverage of an educational perspective, which certainly lays a continuation of the father's experiences and rules of thumb through the classrooms of his later career as a straight line, in the preparation and preparation of the way in high schools, then at technical colleges. Of course, he uses it to design the building from scratch. He is well aware of the technical status of the discourse based on his quotes. Maybe he's a bit sloppy in the way idealism is, but that doesn't have to be his weakness. He has mastered the tools of the trade, which can be easily seen from technical sketches and explanations. Whether he reinvented the wheel is doubtful, but based on its provenance one would also like to speculate internal difficulties. Breaking away from Orthodoxy seems to have been more of a problem then than it is today. Or was he already all too sure of his origins, already at an all too high level as a starting point and the claim correspondingly unattainable in the intellectual circumstances of his time, the cross of all geniuses? Can it really be measured by the same yardstick as the inexperienced debutante in architecture? In the following, you may have wanted to know more precisely, but his treatise on concave spaces is, at best, indirectly affected.

It was already indicated in the aesthetics. In principle, of course, he fails because of his own leveling out, because he is more of the concave among convexes and one is amazed at the parabola of the sphere that moves through circular land and always with a sometimes smaller, sometimes larger plane into the two-dimensional Surface world protrudes. Who could recognize a four- or five-dimensional object because of its inconspicuousness? Without a doubt, a comparison must be made with sculpture, the measure of all things in the fine arts, Hildebrand is mentioned as an example.

Whether you want to start from the convex or the concave remains the same, depending on whether you are talking about the negative or the fit. Plastic is accordingly convex, something has to be removed, the surface bulges. The painting is flat, that was the neutral element mentioned above. The architecture, on the other hand, behaves like a cave, not only for anthropological motives, but also in its object-related implementation in the surrounding overall space, indeed the space itself is concave.[24] This makes the dome the central event in architecture, not only, or precisely because it is a must-attend event as St. Peter's Basilica or, more originally, the Pantheon, it is Mecca. That may sound more blasphemous than it is at first, but let's consult Spengler. It is true that Mohammed was protected from the captors by the spider in a cave[25], and one could fix the original motif of Islam in it, سكينة (Sakīna). But Rome is initially "pagan" and belongs to the culture of antiquity, i.e. Egypt with the primordial symbol of the path of life along a wall, carved in stone for eternity, then transformed down several times via the Minoan Crete and Greece and subjected to an inherent change in meaning.

The individual is abstract, only the ruler sees his path as an example of the species being. The Orient, on the other hand, is immanent and superimposed on ancient culture. So it is also magical, depending on the individual, idiomatic per se. Only the Gothic is actually, that is, genuinely Christian, "superimposed" the Orient with the Renaissance, in a transition, if you will, a delusion through and between the parallel cultural areas. At least that's how Spengler wants it. We do not know whether Sörgel knew that. Spenglers Fall of the West was only published years after Sörgel's discussion of the concave, presumably one referred to common sources, or one has to start from the prevailing discourse and the general knowledge of contemporaries, which is still under the spell of classical philologists and ancient humanists, a discussion of dome elements in architecture should be reserved for the architecture anyway and was undertaken at the points already mentioned there. Much later, in any case, Sörgel will plan his own pantheon, so the thought never quite let go of him until the end. It is funny that he not only reserved a place for Jesus of Nazareth, next to Goethe and others like Hörbiger, but just as curiously also a Duncan who seems to have distinguished himself for him through “Scottish dance”.

The work itself can be found as a manuscript in the archive.[26]The law of concavity with a special relation to the architectural spherical space deals first with the “peculiarity of space”, as already, in broad outline, in dissertation I. Here Sörgel first distinguishes between the optical, the symbolic and the practical.[27] The importance of spherical space is followed by its means, then the spatial problem of building history. Fechner is mentioned, like Lotze, that even with non-philosophers the theory of the beautiful is no longer just metaphysical reverie or dialectical conceptual artifice. Again and again Sörgel underlines individual words, lays a red thread through the work, from the eye he moves to visibility, to architecture, to the tendency to create space.

The beauty of the circle is of some relevance, yes a principle of nature. There are mention of Plato, Hogarth, Raphaël, Mengs, Winckelmann, Theodor Vischer, actually Fischer. Sörgel moves on to the principle of concavity and to Hocheder, from there to the effects of the image, to the type, ie to the “why”, to the content of the form, to the spatial value, especially measured horizontally and vertically. The form of existence is to be assigned a form of appearance as well as a form of effect. Reflections on painting, sculpture and architecture are followed by those on age, the spatial potencies in their simplest formula can already be brought to a 3D psychology.

Sörgel and Behrendt are interested in the king's audience hall; he takes a closer look at the courtyard and the halls in the building. Does everything have its justification and usability? Everything has to be visually easy to grasp and accessible to accommodation, perhaps according to the principle of similarity? Time and again, the work is interspersed with small sketches or illustrations, such as the “Teatro Olimpico” in Vicenza. Of course, Sörgel has a capitalized “Noblesse oblige”. Especially with regard to the mental powers of art, that is κατ‘ἐξοχή ν. There is a clear law on all sides.

The will is followed by the memory, then Schinkel, it goes on to the economy, to the statics, to the lighting. Beyond heating, ventilation, acoustics and optics, unusable and uncomfortable gussets dominate the building cube for Sörgel again and again.[28] Again reference is made to light and color, especially using the example of the atrium of the LMU. The window shape should be the same. Renaissance and Baroque follow Michelangelo and this time Raffael, Paolo Veronese, Tintoretto, Pozzi, Tiepolo, Goya and Knoller, "to name just a few"[29]. Sörgel is interested in the Gonzaga Palace, as is the lighting in the hall of the Israelite cemetery, especially the walls, the formation of niches, the floor area and fixtures, the floorboard motif, the floor covering. The Vienna Museum is there and a design by Bénard from the University of Berkeley, we're talking about being upscale.

FIG. 9 already shows trees that look like mushroom clouds, FIG. 10 a conceptual graphic that could have come from a game forge.[30] It was painted perfectly by himself and is it perhaps an archaeological mystery? Five Pietà are united in a circle around a crypt in a tomb and Sörgel now refers to Phrygia, Lycia, the Etruscan necropolis. He also mentions the Scaliger tombs in Verona, Ravenna, the Capella di Pazzi in Florence, and of course Santa Croce, and deals with false facades and organic structures. He lists: the temple building, perhaps "Hauswuen", the Tholo temple, the Minerva medica in Rome, speaks of Islam, also of the Bacchus Church. Convex projecting cornices and bodies have a concave basic chord, Sörgel knows the mosque of the Mihrimah in Edirne Kapu, the baptisteries of Pisa, the rotunda in Brescia. He is fascinated by the stone-ball vault of the cathedral in Angoulême, as well as St.-Michel d'Etraignes, the chapels of Würzburg and Ludwigsstadt.

In the passage on urban development, the remarks “omit?” And “shorten?” Can be found in red at the edge; one can only guess whether the final version was different here. But here, too, Sörgel had long been clear, long before Spengler read the book, that the Egyptians had a “frontal feeling”, that Gothic was corporeal, that Rococo gave unbridled imagination scope.[31] The concave spherical sphere applies to the unlimited as well as the spatial problem of newer building tasks in its objectivity, rapture and purpose. There is the rental house and the private house, but also torpedo boats and a “railway coupée”, the “lady's room” at Steinach Castle, inner courtyard, garden apartment. It's about clarity and of course the Panopticon is also allowed[32] not missing, this time as a reading room.

Show buildings are planned and concentric, as in the theater of 1900, as in Letchworth's open-air schools, of course embedded in the garden cities. The National Bismarck Halls are no longer known to us today. Sörgel mentions the Great Berlin Art Exhibition of 1904, as well as the National Hall according to U. Spaeth. Four stages are planned, it revolves around the art of dance and polyklet, around squares and "streets", around floor space, around the Piazza del Campo in Siena. Sörgel treats the pavement, the water basin, lawns, mosaic, flower beds, wall surfaces, the decoration almost element by element in a scheme that is already familiar. But spherical space also has its downsides. Sörgel concludes: “Any categorical and one-sided application would ultimately lead to boredom; it is also just one color of that polychrome prism: art. "[33] In the bibliography you can still find one or two names such as Fiedler, Hildebrand, Hoeber, Schmassow, Sitte, Streiter, Woermann, as well as the magazine for the history of architecture.

Sörgel continues, curiously. In the Aberrations & oddities he accomplishes the alleged bridging into the dreamlike, purely conceptualized. The cover is adorned with “Metropolis”, a Fritz Lang film, which unfortunately was dragged into the haze of the Nazis. It will show that some of the key data of Sörgel's plot are not dissimilar to that of the film, yes, the year of publication even goes hand in hand with the Atlantropa idea, which does not seem to be a coincidence, a fateful one at all. The small, well-illustrated volume begins in Athos, that enclave of monks and hermits in Greece, which is particularly well sealed off from women, and which was conceived early on in the form of a giant, as it could possibly be visualized at present through the "God of War" series of games , generally through the role of the titans in Olympic mythology and their gigantic dimensions, as they are probably only symbolized by the monumental buildings themselves.

The building passion already prevailed in ancient Egypt, which can be easily demonstrated with the help of the pyramids. The pyramid itself is symbolic of the state structure, at the top the pharaoh as the eye of Horus, who knew the secret, namely to occupy the right place from the beginning, yes the pyramid is the state, cemented for "eternity", even if it has been badly eroded so far, another wrong and patina-free idea. It is no coincidence that Sörgel is not the only one who always converts the excavated quantities into pyramid volumes - supposedly for the sake of clarity - a mistake that still makes a difference in large-scale projects of the present and perhaps even wants to suggest a national comparison. The secret is that it is the same tradition of architects and builders who could well pay with death for their failure - or they were weighed in gold.By the way, Cheops daughter was a prostitute, so Sörgel.

In New York he shows a scene that we would like to call "Stations of the Elevated", according to a documentary of the same name, the famous elevated railway lines of local public transport, which wind through the urban canyons, especially towards North Charlemagne and the notorious "Projects" as probably the most striking impression, but actually you should have Manhattan right away en bloc The High Line was recently turned into a park on the Upper Westside. Accordingly, Wall Street captivates the peoples of the earth with their shares in their underground safes. Sörgel initially stated that there was a lack of purpose, addiction to sensations, and style lapses. There is still a lack of monumental architecture, due to economic hardship or artistic inability. He now seems to leave the skyscrapers outside. For him, Skylla & Charybdis are romanticism and sticking to the obsolete, as well as the machine, the compulsion to become industrial, they too will find another parallel when the border shifts to the west.

A little further it says: "The overstretched moderns boldly demand a new worldview and religion [...]" It must be new, never been there, which the whole world is talking about. The electrification of the kitchen is still considered a dream here, later it is only the dream of the housewife. The housing misery is still there, but the "time of major changes" is already emerging. The unkind and disdainful "haberdashery" served up correspond to the citizen, the "Bazarschund" to the philistine. He then thematizes anew the surrogate as with the building materials. Then he pays tribute to Taut's “minimalism”, we wanted it with the Alpine architecture and the Dissolution of the cities introduce and dare to take a short digression here. How is its minimalism represented? According to Voigt, the “utopian peace manifesto” that emerged in the last year of the war envisaged rebuilding the Italian-Swiss Alps, primarily with steel, concrete and glass to create “amorphous” and “crystalline” engineering structures that could be illuminated from within especially at night it has to be a show. A table mountain is being sanded down, a piece of the Glarus Alps >> angular-smooth <<, this time Taut himself. Expressionistic, sparkling, >> Be a thought of your star, the earth that wants to adorn itself - through you! <<[34] According to Taut, the costs would have amounted to 865 billion marks until 1993. But he too had his predecessors, ultimately Shaw, who was probably the first to process the newly emerging type of magnate in an appealing literary way.

It gets tricky when Sörgel then himself condemns “curiosities” and “pimps” and cites skulls and skin as two scarcely repellent conceivable examples, real ones, as we must assume. Here one can vaguely imagine what loads the interwar period was also dragging around with it. Foujita's art, especially his late war cycle and, can give a vivid impression of this Les Fables de la Fontaine, albeit from a completely different context. Then he criticizes logic and ergonomics: “When we think of the spacecraft, we hardly have a coffee pot that we don't spill out of.” Shortly afterwards, it says: “You bump into the sharp edges and corners of the furniture. The lamp casts shadows exactly where you want to read. ”The need for luxury is wrong, if not abnormal, there is a desire for representation, even pretentiousness.

Sörgel adds one more thing with human hair and fingernails, the Congo is already indicated on the horizon. But the architectural imagination also has strange effects. The instinct to play initially leads to the appropriation of space, which will also be discussed again later, has already been discussed.[35] Sörgel speaks of the "castle in the air", of the idea of ​​Sörgel dreams with pleasure. We could also bring Castaneda's complete works into the field on the dream and the warrior. In any case, Sörgel too often raises the question of whether it can be implemented practically, that is, cheaply; we will encounter the concept of “concrete utopia” again with Bloch. For his upcoming design, this economically stingy economy is still a shortcoming.

But first of all he shows Thomas Mann the correct plan sketch from the “Buddenbrooks” and we could also meet him at the “Magic Mountain” and will meet him again in the form of “Doctor Faustus”. Ponten seems to have inspired Sörgel, should be mentioned The Babylonian Tower, certainly the original motif of the megalomaniac qua building and under Nimrod's ambitions even a challenge to God, The master is mentioned, here the main character or hero role is a cathedral. Yes, the individual withdraws behind the monument. Yikes Mao It is important to him that the unjustly frowned upon young would be delighted with this whole depth psychological transfer. The house is "demonic" here, the protagonist dies with the house. They formed a unit. The underlying power is both mystical and satirical, ghostly, as well as erotic, grotesque.

At Frey, “Solneman the Invisible” buys the English Garden, a sky-high wall is built, and a racecourse is on the battlements. Today it's the highly controversial garden tram. For him it's about the vividness, the importance of the place has already been mentioned, with Benjamin one might like to talk about the auratic, more generally about the magic. Designs by masters, from the Renaissance to the 18th century, are malleable material for him. Piranesi is mentioned, the Schedelsche Weltchronik, the Merian. Otto Hirth's maps, via Taut into contemporary fantasy and role play games. Michel points out The devil in art down. The Tower of Babel - again - this time by Laske, as well The vision of the limping devil. Ferriss is one of the "renderers". In Hoffmanns Serapions brothers Krespel spontaneously builds a house. Reality takes place with no plans. Because in the past, building was done more directly anyway, but that, too, is declared at the expense of monumentality.

What remains is the Faustian longing for the distance, condensed into the question of what the ancients would have really built if they had the means to do so. In any case, everything was better in the imagination and what remains are the historical ruins ... With Sachs, art is anyway “waking dream Germanism”, one becomes “space-time designer” and the congealed music as architecture is almost idle. With “Deluxe”, skyscrapers and jazz are one and the same, in the nocturnal continuous loop.

What else did Sörgel influence? There are numerous references to this in the archive, first of all in relation to magazines. Sörgel obtained background information on the political situation, such as the geopolitical information service and the European Union. He owned Occidental and Ido brochures similar to Esperanto, so "world auxiliary languages" according to Haas. But there are also such curious booklets as the Cagliostro book catalog, a brochure from Gelsenkirchener Bergwerks A.G. or the linoleum construction week. Furthermore, the workshops of the future from the Chamber of Technology, the documentation of the time, the conversation from a distance, a presentation of the Flender panel radiator, even presentations by the Quakers and the World University. Finally the “Europa-Rad”, the cosmos-geography-disk, with the help of which framework data such as capital, form of government, monetary unit, main export items and other important information can be set by turning, a whole lot of mixed sources about Europe, as well as the world citizen.[36] Elsewhere, Sörgel even has an English vocabulary booklet, as well as, one may hardly believe it and yet it makes sense, even fits in with a brochure by El Sendero Luminoso[37], international law at a crossroads.

2.1.3 Schwabing Bohème

Sörgel was an integral part of the Munich scene, a real “BoBo”, as one could throw in disparagingly. Indeed, the judgment is ambivalent. Walter Kiaulehn noted in his obituary that at that time >> only something counted who was a reformer, whether he reformed the ABC like Stefan George or love like Frank Wedekind. <<[38] In the documentation, which was and is solidly placed on Phoenix, in the third, on ORF, and in general in public law, Voigt even goes a step further and says that at that time you could only stand out if you were every Thursday spawned a new idea that would make the world a better place. Well, one can imagine an intellectual circle full of idealists in exactly the same way, but which also has to fulfill its bourgeois plan target.

But it was also the “easy life” that Sörgel was able to enjoy relatively carefree due to his standing and his financial starting position. Far away from the front and between the wars, Jünger's steel thunderstorms probably only shook intoxicated spirits. The chandeliers and chandeliers will only start to wobble more noticeably again under the Nazi decadence. “Golden Twenties”, “Swinging Twenties”, “Roaring Twenties”, people had a good time in the post-war boom, indulged in early films, poured the code between Chicago and Hollywood, maybe for the first time actually played the starlets, was even a star, epigonism spreads and will not go away from then on.

The jeunesse dorée still knows how to celebrate and that extensively. There was a touch of gangsterism in the air, as Arendt shows in the course of the Parvenus, which increasingly merge beyond recognition with the rackets, syndicates and gangs that emerge just like the "Unions", that is, unions and follow the American model. The first cartels are formed. Crime has become socially acceptable, in the salons people begin to adorn themselves with crook methods for the sake of dear entertainment. It was the early days and, as always, they benefited. The Great Gatsby It may come to mind, here too the crash must have followed on the foot for many, Fechter may be remembered again, whose protagonist is brought closer to boxing and whose old regime perishes on poorly understood share tips from the upstart.

So much for the historical background, for the backdrop in the “Great Game”, but Munich was probably more likely to hit the church clock than the Tommygun. Shanghai becomes the agents' playground. Sörgel submitted a draft for the formation of a ring with high-rise buildings and wanted to reorganize Munich thoroughly. It fits the picture all too well that he is blocking the construction of new churches. Again and again he will improve his salary through odd journalistic work, buy a car, two holiday homes, a rental house, the miracle of electricity spreads like lightning. The "Straße der Republik" should extend from the main train station via Odeonsplatz, where Hitler was going to take a coup at this time, up to Milbertshofen. Sörgel is non-denominational, remains neutral, he stays away from the parties, the Soviet Republic and the assassinations of Eisner, Liebknecht & Luxemburg in Berlin have also left their mark. Here, too, the cinema had already been anticipated, the death of Bonnie & Clyde will finally seal this era and relocate it from the world stage to the spiritual province of the killer couple.

Meuter & Otten speaks of “moral kitsch”, of “decadent shopkeeping”, of mammon, muff - the provinces possibly still - yes of decadence. The "immoralism of artificial creativity" prevails, owed to an "unsuitability for the rabble prose of bourgeois life". Dandyism of anti-bourgeois valeurs makes glass to glass questionable: are we for or against progress? Elitist how anarchist Self-praise distinguishes the charismatic “outsider”, whose “impassibilité” such as “impersonalité de l’artiste” sometimes corresponds to a “heroic cult of the cold”.

The end of femininity and softness on the other hand, as well as a cultivated anti-naturalism, should be supported by the pasture luck of the bourgeois herd animal. In the ricorso this leads to barbarism, cynicism of the war industry, where there are curbs for the servants, is known to be free for men, as the judge swung the fasces to make room for the senators in front of the plebs, with one or the other Mercilessly sacrificed other legitimate supplicants. Yes, Spengler even speaks of a libertas oboedientiae. At the core of a friend-foe scheme, there is also a techno-fascist myth of bourgeois utilitarianism and monetary rule - i.e. plutocracy - primarily from Catholics. The suffering celebrated follows existentialism and the search for meaning on horseback.[39] But also Bürger, a perfectly fitting name, knows about ennui and, above all, about liaison with an actress who is probably appropriate to a late aristocratic class consciousness.[40]

But we get ahead, Sörgel also has a crush, like Job Monday later, it's the said Duncan. So the Duncan, he dedicates a “garden city” to her, a dance school on a Mediterranean island, for retreat in the style of the Epicureans, based on Lesbos or the Hesperides if you want. In fact, she was the pioneer of modern expressive dance, probably wanted to reanimate the Dionysian against the Apollonian - we think of Nietzsche - demanded ecstasy and emancipation, where boredom and oppression must have reigned.

Interesting union of opposites, where at first one is inclined to clearly assign the architecture to the solar one, only in the ornament perhaps not, a different type of architecture perhaps and above all subordinate implementation. Later he will be really connected to the southern German women's movement, presumably mediated through the Hungarian half-Jew Irene von Villyani, whom he will marry and who later co-finances his extravagant engagement as an accredited art dealer. Here, too, the alternative is already largely on the same line or a ring, but the necessary leisure like muse is mainly reserved for the establishment, or let's say the avant-garde, even if Lyotard does not appreciate the military connotation of the word. Sörgel was a pacifist, soon after Coudenhove-Kalergi's concern to create Pan-Europe, out of a similarity of names and to avoid legal difficulties, he soon renamed his project from Panropa to Atlantropa.

Citizens again, the flowers of the Evil Baudelaire continue to bloom here as elsewhere in biotopes, which may no longer enjoy a beautiful life, but their scattered remnants. A blurring of contours to a dull gray of the melancholy finds its accent, a listlessness that seems almost insurmountable without becoming a citizen. By the way, the focus here is on Aragon. But the group has a secret power of the refus that opposes it to the world. The outrage over the poor organization of the world is more than moral. The self-hatred of the melancholy was transformed by the alchemy of the group games. At the origin of the hope for radical change there is a Benjamin who is based on a much older archetypal phenomenon Goethe and whose gestures of avant-garde protest want to fathom the dark ground of longing.[41]

Schroer, on the other hand, sees the loss of individuality at work, uniformity, discipline, standardization. Wherever Weber sees religious circles, there is above all a bare pursuit of gainful employment. The individualistic human type turns into subjugation, the sole rule of bureaucratic ideals of life penetrates above all into the intimate and familial world[42] one and in particular through the all-father industry. While the structure hardens, the individual softens, but de Souza demands the >> Professionals with a spirit <<. Defiant resistance with no prospect of success deserves the predicate of a successful Don Quixote, whereby the elitist belief of the upper middle class also retains its aristocratic trait here. From the "pathos of distance" to the appendage of the bureaucratic machine, it is actually not far to the continuation in the Frankfurt School.[43] Schwaabe, who has dealt intensively with Weber himself, knows about the optimism for progress in technical adaptation, the consequences and costs of which are above all "into infinity", i.e. "pointless". The >> universal historical view << cannot be denied that there is concern for people, given a pessimistic tone that is tantamount to a lasciate ogni speranza.[44]

Sörgel's intellectual starting point within Munich is Spengler. It is possibly the plumber who does the honors in the salon of the senator's widow Rodde. Sörgel's riposte will read at the beginning: Fall of the West or Atlantropa. Only his vision can no longer save culture - he did not want to go on a confrontational course - but at least lay the foundations for a completely new cultural area, which he is practically stamping out of the retort. He is not only a world builder, but also a world geneticist, even a world revolutionary.Spengler's most important concept is becoming, with which he naturally anticipates Heidegger. At the same time Bloch will write epically exhaustively about utopias, from a diametrical perspective, with a comparable pure book weight. Front and novelty can definitely be opposed to becoming. Nowadays we would probably speak of processuality.

Spengler identifies several cultures to which a flower has a certain lifespan, whose biological clock ticks down relentlessly, like red sand through an hourglass. The city was often portrayed as a Moloch, but with Spengler, paradoxically, Munich itself would only be of marginal interest, where even the big cities have long been overtaken by world metropolises like Paris or London. At this point he will meet Sörgel again. Right now it may be New York or Hong Kong, New Delhi, Mexico City or Lagos. Of course you are not far from Lovelock and the Gaia hypothesis, where entire civilizations are just one “daisy” among many, this earth time ends abruptly with the sun. Sörgel also cuts this yardstick in the wake of Hörbiger and his ice world theory, which is cosmogenic and is intended to prepare for the "correct" orders of magnitude of thought. In general, it was universal history en vogue, of course also in justifying preparation for geopolitics, names like Haushofer, Dix might come to mind here.

But Sörgel was also not far from esotericism - you already guessed it. After all, there is always all sorts of room for speculation of all kinds. The manifestations of theosophy in Munich itself are apparently not to be underestimated, Gall is thanked for the reference to Steiner, we rather know them from the European or even world scale of a Blavatsky, a Crowley, the whole seance kitsch and ethno climax of forbidden occult books of the dead to drive along, relics and totems, which the empires had gathered and stolen from all corners of the world, which awaited its utilization in the museums and archives, finally gathered dust.

A Somerset Maugham may have put this most aptly on the point of a cloudy mason jar, but one might also imagine an Indiana Jones or even a hard-to-digest Easterman. In this context, Sörgel's charisma should be mentioned, which may even have had hypnotic qualities. He was able to inspire enthusiasm for his project through speeches, something that we can again confidently quote Weber about. But the analogies are far from over - the black and white has in the meantime itself the touch of the obscure, mysterious, spiritual, a genre that ambitious young directors try again and again with greater or lesser success, especially in conventional photography to the tragic film noir finish. Sörgel's scene in his study reinforces this impression. He is characterized as being downright “obsessed” with his idea. However, one must not overlook the fact that here too the original epoch was colored in true color, even if it was still according to Ufa standards, a point of authenticity in the contemporary period film.

In the archive of the Deutsches Museum there are some references to the eccentric collector's rather special preferences, scenes of torture, cruel curiosities, as they follow the relevant cliché, from a certain point the passion for collecting obviously no longer knows any natural limits, which follows the initially simple whimsy nor the manically guarded cupboard of hunting trophies of all kinds and you feel dangerously close to the contemporary psychological thriller. Because this cliché is not a coincidence. Of course, this also fits into the context of ethnology, which is the first to research and scrutinize monstrous things for the Western understanding of civilization. The commander's butterfly collection on an African outpost is still rather harmless.

But the scenes also come from the heart of western civilization (certainly the eastern one was in no way inferior to it, just think of Clavell, the bizarre preferences of the Chinese emperor, another feature-length film), thus the "Africa within" of a Conrad , finally a Lévi-Strauss. Again Freud: the defoliation of the unconscious and the embarrassing stripping of the fig leaf finds its parallel in the uncovering of the last areas on the map. Where the sea monsters used to live, those ad limine adorned and adorned today. At Shea & Wilson, just to prolong the esoteric escape into the past future, we could possibly drain the Leviathan in the Mediterranean, another big game hunt that seems worthwhile. Sörgel is of course in the tradition of Ahab, himself a white whale, this whale hunts itself as a beast in its very own (nightmare) dream. But at the moment, which should not linger, it is already leading too far beyond Munich, although there was once a sea here too and Africa was closer.

One last character that still has to be introduced is Ortega y Gasset, whom he met late. The revolt of the masses is a topic on which one becomes friends as a mutual assurance of the elite. Often the two were seen together in Schwabing in the café, a not unsuitable place for such a serious subject. Y Gasset will later become the dependencia -School as a role model. Schwabing's dependence, another anticipation. In the beginning there was overcrowding. Total leveling goes hand in hand with it. The masses are related to the massive, the relation to building is obvious.

But he was just as anxious to strike a balance between the USA and Europe, the extent to which one has strengthened each other's views is certainly difficult to reconstruct, but in a lively exchange of ideas it is understandable for everyone with a conversation partner, we can also see them as antagonists every now and then to introduce. At the moment y Gasset is demystifying the illusion of an >> abundance of time << as an end, mentions Cervantes, whom Bloch also takes up, the way is always better than the hostel, yes the principle of the Dao itself. “Modern” is in this sense better. But this does not mean that the course followed is like "a prison that stretches"[45] is. This mistake was made by the imperial buildings, which are final, “eternal”, with which nothing new can happen and the weight of the stone weighs like gloom and melancholy, just as Egypt did again. However, he does not want to sing "doom lamentations", ill-willedness is not his. Schlemihl's shadow would also have disappeared by midday.[46]

He sums up his own time as follows: "more than everyone else and less than herself."[47] What is new to him is the control of space and time, but also the violence that is inflicted on both of them. One could perhaps think further with Virilio here, as Sörgel did with the car, or with Nadolny much later advise to read more slowly, whereby one sees more. But have the possible solutions really increased? Or is there rather the impression of tremendous perfection of power in “racing past”? In the following passage he explicitly speaks out against Spengler again, accusing him of a lack of definition, which is astonishing because of the scope of the work. But even that is probably not enough, especially not in times of ultra-definition. As well as his defense of the prevailing conditions is meant: on the eve of the brown pack, she unfortunately comes out of place because too late, well-intentioned, but in a losing position - he will soon be outdone at the card table. It is indeed a quarrel of the mob, but still in league with the old elites. Reality is of course always more complex than coming to terms with what has just happened, but already includes its own working-through reflexively itself!

So he sees that having more resources, knowledge and technology at hand also means "abandoned to all winds"[48] to be. So you have become everyone's plaything. There is a dichotomy between a feeling of power and insecurity. The worst is possible, it is a blind optimism for progress that no longer knows any plans, goals or ideals. Ironically, the triumph of the masses in the Mediterranean countries has come the furthest, and he did not even have the "modern" tourist silos in mind. One lives into the day, has nothing in mind, has no life plan, an accusation that in the North-South conflict is persistent as a stubborn prejudice. Terrifying images emerge if you already use the migrants for comparison, is that a double nothing in terms of nothing?

How up-to-date he was using the correct terms back then, in the sense of a future-oriented treatise, there is “present” (that is, moment, moment), a forced state of emergency, “evasive” takes place, there is no solution, there is only flight . Any means is appropriate, but the risk of bargaining even greater difficulties exists (as they will actually break in on the migrants at the constantly shifted "goal", a "sans paper" that is entering the new round, a crime that makes Arendt even “safer”). Y Gasset relates all of these topoi to government, just as the masses' monopoly of violence has always been omnipotent and ephemeral at the same time. It is nothing, leads to nothing, although the possibilities and powers are enormous. This corresponds to an experimental natural science which, in union with industrialism, leads to technology. Even then, the credo was higher, faster, further. You are already spoiled. He counters this against a nobility that still embodies the real elite. Because: primitivism and technology always form a unity in analogue, the digital age does not change anything about that, one may only think of McLuhan again, this time in his retribalization through electrification - it couldn't be more relevant - and the subsequent exchange of an eye for one Ear.

Next, he reveals us as cargo cultists, natural people who find it difficult to find their way in a civilization. The “radically new” can only be mastered by a few people, especially with regard to the restoration of Europe, which at that time can only be imagined as complex at best. But he still has the hope of "contemporary" people. Europe is just a buffoon to him, the overall picture is sacrificed to specialization. But he also sees totalitarianism dawning as a real danger, using the same metaphor that Sörgel will adopt in a similar form, in that one only has to press a button to start the machine. With Europe's potential decline, the question of the meaning of life arises, how could it be otherwise. A creative rulership is required, so the two rulers may have talked, which is anything but neglect. Wherever the possibilities collide with the constitution, this area of ​​attack can be found because there is a lack of true-to-scale programs. Especially with regard to Catalonia, this is again of some topicality and explosiveness. The European nation-states breed provincials because there is a conflict between the internal and external form.

The eternal blood, language and soil still apply, and it is difficult to get along with the above creed. Again he underlines the future orientation, Europe is by no means utopian, four fifths of it are common property anyway. Nevertheless everything is provisional, yes you have to say “fake” today. The nation is not just a province, it is prison air, another image that we will find similarly in Sörgel. The crisis, on the other hand, means to him an excessive and artificial increase in survivors, even then the politics of the crisis were already being dealt with - nothing new in the West - under the pretext of avoiding the obligation of major new ventures, he could hardly give Sörgel a better lead to fit.

The “red tide”, on the other hand, is harmless, since Europe anyway represents the “map of personality” that cannot be assimilated to Russian communism, not by definition, so to speak. So you would have to sacrifice your ego. However, there is definitely the possibility that a success of the five-year plan could trigger a real wave of enthusiasm. A strong Europe would also offer a way out of this. Even before the current development, this does not lack a certain irony as a diagnosis, because there is currently rumbling again in Russia, albeit from the right-wing fringes and the links such as “inherited burdens” to East Germany in the form of sustainable dismantling and vacuum in the minds are on of the hand.

Exactly like Sörgel, y Gasset was also popular over the three decades from the 30s to the 50s, he too moved on the difference between Prussian nobility and modern technocracy and endured an >> incessant struggle against utopianism <<, namely also in positive sense, perhaps also directed against Don Quixotes from a Spanish predicament, but above all against the "dystopian" of totalitarianism, which is actually still wrongly labeled here, at least as it has specifically manifested itself in real socialism.

What he is missing in the end is that grand dessein of strategy and political leadership, not a sloppy day-to-day routine that probably decides on the basis of the gut and thus suffers arbitrary shipwreck. So the old criterion of ethics of conviction and responsibility. However, it is definitely questionable here, and Stürmer's afterword catches up with the two of them a little, whether the “satisfied young gentlemen” or even the “unsuspecting crowd” could really offer a solution. In theory, yes, as it should show. Nonetheless, the bill is finally there, you want to get up and leave. Neo-globalization, bipolarization and nuclearization were nevertheless already foreseeable. Be that as it may, Ortega y Gasset should have a long reverberation for anti-imperialist currents and stir up the flames of independence movements.


[1] See for the introduction Dreitzel & Stenger, loc. cit., passim

[2] The term comes from "Minority Report", but is also relevant to "Ghost in the Shell" and other genre pearls of human self-discovery on the border with machines since the medieval Inquisition's search for the soul. With Pratchett, for example, those who have fallen from the transmission tower are still on the line, think also of the “lawnmower man”, or those who retire from the chair, the list of “processing” of the motif is tiresome and long.

[3] In all three sources on von Miller viewed, no prominent reference, not to say none at all, is made to him. It is true that there is talk of a general plan from 1908-11, which finally wants to realize a uniform form of energy and thus first of all the integral economy itself, in the course of which the Walchensee power plant will then also be realized. Because: "Hundreds of mountain streams plunge down from the northern edge of the Alps into the Bavarian foothills of the Alps, unite to form smaller rivers, and finally to large ones - and all these water masses flow hourly, daily, annually unused." Walther v. Miller, loc. cit., pp. 55-57 Neither is there any mention by name in Oskar v. Miller, loc. cit., but again in this context Dr. Schmick and also some other "old friends" like AEG, Siemens, Krupp, Rathenau et cetera. The relevant passage can be found in Füßl, loc. cit. from p. 164, Walchenseewerk and Bayernwerk, where the communal organization that has prevailed up to now is recognized as uneconomical. Instead, here again other well-known Munich references such as Maffei and Finck, Siemens, Schuckert and Helios. In those early days, people were particularly upset about the question of private or community energy management, where even Ludwig III, the Wittelsbacher, still played a role. In the context of the Reich electricity supply, even Atlantropa itself is mentioned on p. 205, namely as an “outstanding example of large-scale technical planning”, but there is still no trace of the father. Instead, on the basis of the finding aid for Sörgel's archive materials, as with Munich in general, one can also assume that the Tegernsee is also related to the “Staffelsee district”.

[4] Sörgel, draft reform for the uniform organization of building schools, loc. cit., p. 3

[5] Ibid., P. 16

[6] In key points biographically about Sörgel, the project, especially from a visualization point of view, http://www.cad.architektur.tu-darmstadt.de/atlantropa/startseite.html, last accessed on 02/03/18

[7] Fencer, loc. cit., especially towards the end of the narrative, so to speak as a completed "descent".

[8] Perhaps fundamental and groundbreaking to the utopian albeit “dystopian” discourse, Freud, loc. cit., passim

[9] Kafka, America, loc. cit.

[10] An example of an aerial photo of the Houston skyline can be found under archive number NL 092/023 of the Deutsches Museum.

[11] As exemplified by Paperny, loc. cit. describes.

[12] To the Atlantropa magazine NL 092/041. By the way, issue 7/8 is again the ABC itself.

[13] Sörgel, Introduction to Architectural Aesthetics, loc. cit., p. 77

[14] Ibid., P. 84 We also like to remember Derrida's reflections on “le main” from his film of the same name, as well as the professional truism that art begins where machine technology ends.

[15] Ibid., P. 195

[16] https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herman_S%C3%B6rgel, last accessed on October 16, 2017, also as an overview https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atlantropa, last accessed on November 6, 2017

[17] Among other things, Linger, loc. cit, as well as Schützeichel, loc. cit., Meiske, Brill, and an aesthetic study from southern Italy.

[18] Scheiffele, loc. cit., p. 9

[19] Ibid., P. 63

[20] Ibid., P. 84

[21] Ibid., P. 104

[22] Sörgel, Introduction to Architectural Aesthetics, p. 246

[23] See Gebhardt, in: Meuter & Otten, loc. cit., p. 167 ff.

[24] Sörgel had updated similar considerations under the title “Surface, Body, Space-Time in Art” and, above all, prepared them graphically. A horizontally lying AREA, elongated and frayed at the edges similar to a country, is inscribed on the inside with “painting-seal”, arrows push outwards. All around it says: once upon a time, and then, and then, and if he did not die, then and there it happened. BODY, expressed not only through plastic, but also through dance, is illustrated by a face and a dancing couple, which are in a moving interrelation, while dynamism is indicated above all by arrows, which radiate out from the dancer's hand. In addition to architecture, the third picture, RAUMZEIT, actually also describes music, here you are only dealing with abstract lines, vibrations, dots or perhaps better pointillations, eddies and swirls, snaking, here and there a clef. NL 092/109 Man may already be imposing here.

[25] Sura 9

[26] NL 092/084

[27] Ibid., P. 12

[28] Ibid., P. 39 ff.

[29] Ibid., P. 47

[30] Ibid., P. 55

[31] Ibid., P. 72 ff.

[32] Foucault, loc. cit., but also already Tolkien, loc. cit., as was the case with earlier fantasy architecture.

[33] NL 092/084, p. 134

[34] Quote after. Voigt, loc. cit., p. 30

[35] See Henning, but also Schmitt & Irion, each loc. cit.

[36] See holdings NL 092/137, / 139, / 163, / 166 and / 180.

[37] NL 092/006

[38] Quoted from Voigt, loc. cit., p. 17

[39] See Meuter & Otten, loc. cit., p. 9 ff.

[40] Citizen, loc. cit., p. 134

[41] Ibid., Loc. cit., p. 139 ff., but also Baudelaire, loc. cit. self

[42] For the relationship between system and lifeworld, see Habermas, Theory of Communicative Action, Volume 2, pp. 171 ff.

[43] Schroer, loc. cit., p. 18 ff.

[44] Schwaabe, loc. cit., p. 115 ff., and Dante, loc. cit., p. 14

[45] Y Gasset, loc. cit., p. 30

[46] For him see Chamisso, loc. cit.

[47] Y Gasset, loc. cit., p. 34

[48] Ibid., P. 42

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