Where do neurons generate electrical charge from

What principle do neurons work on?

Neurons are excitable cells that receive information in the form of electrical signals. They work according to the "on-off principle". Here it does not matter whether the stimulus comes from the environment, from inside the body or from another neuron. If the stimulus is strong enough and reaches the so-called stimulus threshold, it leads to a change in the electrical potential within the neuron and thus to a stimulus transmission.

If a neuron is in a state of rest, positively charged sodium ions penetrate from the inside of the cell membrane to the outside, whereby the inside of the cell has a negative charge and the cell membrane has a positive charge (resting potential). If the neuron receives a stimulus at the level of the stimulus threshold, the charge ratios are reversed (depolarization). Positively charged ions from the outer membrane flow into the cell interior and briefly charge it positively. This charge spreads across the neuron and causes an electrical imbalance called an action potential. The excitation thus propagates along the axon at high speed. When the end of the action potential has been reached, the neuron returns to its resting potential until the next stimulation. The course of the nerve impulses is therefore comparable to the current that flows in batteries or electrical circuits, although here it is the negatively charged ions that disturb the balance between positive and negative and thus cause an electrical current. If a battery is stimulated, ie the switch is set to "On", the negatively charged ions move in the direction of the positive ions, disturbing the balance and generating electrical energy.