Which process causes the wilted plant to recover?
The method of plant regeneration by Martin and Georg W. Schmidt
1 Zukunfts-Zentrum Barsinghausen Barsinghäuser report 59 The method of plant regeneration by Martin and Georg W. Schmidt A breeding method for grain in organic farming - with information on seed care by Jörgen Beckmann, Georg W. Schmidt Zukunfts-Zentrum Barsinghausen Rehrbrinkstr. 5, Barsinghausen Tel .: /, Fax: / Internet: Barsinghausen, 2003
4 5.3.2 Seed quality germination water content sowing strength and sowing depth Soil preparation sowing care measures selection at harvest time yield determination storage quality check 63 6 practice in the seed initiatives tasks on the farm preliminary remark area requirement site selection sowing times overlay application of biodynamic preparations harvest time storage skills of the farmer Tasks in the Regional working groups Preliminary remark Division of labor among the farms Sales opportunities Extent of cultivars Area requirement Landscape and farm change Seed times Field selection Selection replication Seed stock and needs assessment Seed recognition and seed trade 72 7 People as cultivators of the seeds 73 8 Bibliography 74
5 List of tables Tab. 1-1: General terrestrial and cosmic growth tendencies of plants, (see SCHMIDT et al. 1995). 22 Tab: 2-1: Initial situations of the seeds for plant regeneration 33 Tab. 2-2: Regeneration measures to promote the terrestrial and cosmic plant functions 34 Tab. 2-3: Assignment of the etheric forces to the four plant functions 35 Tab. 3-1: The Allocation of biodynamic preparations to ether types and their possible uses 51 Tab. 5-1: Regeneration measures to promote plant properties 65
6 List of figures Fig. 1-1: Quality research with image-creating methods, from: Zeitschrift Ökologie & Landbau, Issue 117, 1/2001: Fig. 2-1: Types of ears in winter rye Martin Schmidt 32 Fig. 3-1 Geocentric planetary map with the year signature of the turn of the millennium 50 Fig. 5-1 Photo from the breeding garden of the HERA research center in Uess / Eifel 64
7 Overview index Overview 1-1: The image-creating methods 23 Overview 2-1: The stages of plant regeneration 36 Overview 3-1: The typical planetary effects 52 Overview 3-2: The planets at a glance 53 Overview 5-1: The way of the varieties from Breeding garden in experimental and field cultivation 66
8 The method of plant regeneration by Martin and Georg W. Schmidt 8 Foreword The present report was written in 1999 and 2000 when I visited Georg W. Schmidt in the Eifel at his Eschenhof in Uess at regular intervals. The individual topics in this brochure were worked out in joint discussions. Georg W. Schmidt can look back on almost forty years of work with his method of plant regeneration. From this pool of experiences, as much as possible should be recorded in the following text. I am particularly interested in a description of the method of plant regeneration according to Martin and Georg W. Schmidt that is as practical as possible. Therefore, less emphasis was placed on a comprehensive explanation of the method itself. The method was developed in the context of the anthroposophical understanding of nature. There are only a few publications that deal with this method of plant regeneration, most of them with the corn bed method according to Martin Schmidt (cf. WISTINGHAUSEN 1967 and FRANZKE 2001). Martin Schmidt, Georg Wilhelm's father, had taken part in Rudolf Steiner's agricultural course in 1924. Here he received suggestions for a new form of farming, which he later put into practice at Gut Hessel in Thuringia Schmidt's ether research on the plant, especially the rye, was part of a reference by Goethe from the doctrine of metamorphosis, according to which the entire structure of forces can be found in every part of the plant. This assumption led to the corn bed method developed by Martin Schmidt. Furthermore, from the fundamental statements of Rudolf Steiner About the balance of forces in the plant, the remark in the 2nd lecture of the agricultural course "pointing the way for him that the ABC" of the biodynamic farmer is always to recognize what appears in the plant as earthly-cosmic polarity henceforth to the main concern of Martin Schmidt's form of plant life Care to work out the manifestations by which the above-mentioned polarity of the ethereal can be recognized in the plant. Another important goal for M. Schmidt was to include the influence of the plant's habitat in the breeding process. When Martin Schmidt died in 1964 at the age of 72, the plant breeding association he founded was continued by his son Georg Wilhelm Schmidt, initially at the Grub farm in Bavaria. Georg W. Schmidt has been breeding in the Eifel since 1990. The method of plant regeneration was further developed by him, on the one hand by expanding it to almost all cultivated plants and on the other hand, in addition to the corn bed, the change of landscape and the change in the time of sowing, the constellations of sun, moon and planets were also included in the method. Both Martin and Georg W. Schmidt were strongly influenced in their thinking by the anthroposophical view of the world and implemented this consistently in the development of the plant regeneration method. In this way they developed an independent biodynamic plant breeding method. According to their anthroposophical understanding of the world, the spiritual represents the primary activity in nature and therefore a consistent orientation towards the spiritual is required. Steiner's natural science or, as he called it, "spiritual science" is based on a basic premise according to which our world has two levels, the physical world and the hierarchically structured spiritual world above it. The main causes of what happens in the material world, The natural scientific understanding of the world is contrary to such an approach - according to which the material always represents the determining and primary forces. According to Rudolf Steiner, the material body of a plant is interwoven with a second non-material corporeality, which it is as the etheric or formative body The body of the formative forces is an invisible, supersensible organization, the action of which, however, becomes visible through its intervention in the materiality and the formation of physical structures and organs. designate net is. It is those etheric formative forces that can be found in the form-creating, organizing processes in the development of organisms.
9 The method of plant regeneration by Martin and Georg W. Schmidt 9 For me, as a biologist who has been researching in the field of plant biochemistry for several years, the consequent orientation towards the spiritual is what makes the method of plant regeneration by Martin and Georg W. Schmidt, knowing full well that in her approach there is little room for a scientific understanding of the formative powers of genes in plant development. Cross-breeding and genetic engineering prove that a combination of genes or the incorporation of certain genes creates new, modified plants. But the method of seed regeneration also proves for its part that by consciously introducing etheric forces to the plant, their uptake takes place in the plant's generation sequence. The question that arises for me is whether a bridge is not needed, "how these two methodologically so different approaches can be brought together. Barsinghausen, in August 2001 Dr. rer. Nat. Jörgen Beckmann
10 The method of plant regeneration by Martin and Georg W. Schmidt 10 Introduction If we look at the development of plant breeding in the 20th century, it was shaped by the knowledge gained in genetics, it provided the basis for cross breeding, hybrid breeding and Genetic engineering. Today, knowledge about the composition of a gene can be used to "incorporate" certain properties into the plant organism. The first genetically modified varieties have already been integrated into the market worldwide. This range of high-performance varieties interacts with a changed agriculture, which is increasingly bearing the mark of an industrial production facility. The consequences of arable farming geared towards high yields were inevitable. The decline in species that has occurred over the past 40 years is linked to the intensification of agriculture, which, in terms of its effects on nature, landscape and the environment, was probably more serious than all the interventions by agriculture since this reversal of agriculture, from the creator of ours Cultural landscape destroying nature and rural culture is the result of industrial production conditions in agriculture. In this way, agriculture became the main cause of the severe extinction of species, before industry itself and mass transportation. Our time is shaped by technology and industrialization, but it is also shaped by a general tendency to disrupt living space. As a reaction to the environmentally damaging consequences of conventional agriculture, organic farming has increasingly found its way into our society since the 1970s. In organic farming, leaving out chemical fertilizers and synthetic pesticides is only the first step. The decisive addition - especially in biodynamic farming - is the inclusion of the entire habitat for plants and animals. In addition to site-specific influences such as climate, geology, etc., this habitat also includes forces that act from the cosmos. With this type of farming, the cultivated plant finds its connection to the entire habitat. For biodynamic agriculture, plants are now to be bred that have the ability to absorb the forces from the environment around them; for this purpose, the cultivated plant is to be brought into an expression that is as appropriate and typical of the species as possible. It is not always important to breed new varieties, but rather to look after proven varieties in terms of conservation breeding so that they can further develop and improve. The method of plant regeneration presented below is essentially aimed at creating conditions so that the plants can develop further in their habitat. Of central importance for this type of plant breeding are Rudolf Steiner's statements on his anthroposophical worldview as well as his basic ideas in the agricultural course from the year According to Steiner, an agricultural farm is to be seen as a living organism with its own individuality, which is derived from the location, the Landscape elements, the cultivated plants, the animals kept on the farm and the influence of the people who work and create there. The seeds, as part of this individuality, must be included in the development of the agricultural organism. This requires the continuous care of the seeds, i.e. their reproduction on the farm. The variety, which has been recreated and cared for over many years, is known as the Hofsorte. Over the years, a site-specific seed quality that corresponds to the individual operating conditions can develop. The main goals in plant regeneration include constant correspondence with the environment, the durability of the variety and the variability of the plant. By producing a high degree of variability in the plants, they are given the ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions.
11 The method of plant regeneration by Martin and Georg W. Schmidt 11 1 Seeds for organic farming 1.1 Grain breeding in organic farming Introduction Since the end of the last century, our food plants have been in a profoundly changed situation. Internationally distributed high-performance varieties have displaced the great diversity of the old local varieties. Long-term fertility, quality and resistance of old varieties have been partially lost due to modern breeding and cultivation methods and the effects of civilization. Until the middle of the last century there were a large number of local varieties which were adapted to the respective site conditions and which were cultivated with good success over long periods of time. These local varieties had characteristics that developed from the character of the landscape and the soil conditions in connection with the farming skills. The types of grain currently on the market are mostly one-sidedly geared towards high yields. The other goals of conventional grain breeding also include the permanent uniformity of the variety in connection with a short-term renewal of the seed at each sowing. The properties of these commercial varieties include complete independence from the immediate and wider area of life, they are global varieties that are largely dependent on external mineral fertilizers and the use of herbicides and pesticides. Reasons for organic farming to take the reproduction of suitable cultivated varieties into their own hands are production-related factors that are not in accordance with the guidelines for organic farming: Without artificial fertilizers, conventional varieties develop neither their quantitative nor their qualitative properties, they are often very vulnerable without herbicide and fungicide treatment; these varieties are bred according to different breeding criteria (goals) than they apply to organic farming, such as B. Consideration of the growth-periodic development potential of plants (weed suppression potential), location, microclimate, soil quality, including ethical concerns that are also required by organic farming: restriction of genetic diversity by cultivating a few varieties, the increase in hybrid varieties that cannot be reproduced the farmer into a strong dependency on seed companies as well as the growing use of genetic engineering in plant breeding. Breeding methods such as hybrid and genetic engineering are difficult to reconcile with the principles of organic farming. A fundamental decision on the further development of seeds for organic farming was laid down in the EU regulation for organic farming in 1995, according to which seeds should only be used from the origins of these cultivation methods. In EU regulation 2092/91 it is stipulated that after December 31, 2003, in principle, all starting material must come from organic breeding. The cultivation guidelines for organic farming already stipulate that no genetically modified seeds may be used 1. This critical attitude towards genetic engineering results from the unforeseeable risks associated with the exposure of genetically modified plants to the environment. At the moment organic farming is still dependent on conventional breeding. However, conventional breeding is increasingly making use of the possibilities of genetic engineering treatment of 1 The organic cultivation associations are working on banning the use of genetically modified organisms (GMO) and including this principle, which the cultivation associations have so far observed, in the EU directive .
12 The method of plant regeneration by Martin and Georg W. Schmidt 12 Withhold seeds so that compliance with a GMO-free organic production chain is becoming increasingly difficult. This increases the need for purely organic plant breeding with suitable breeding methods within the guidelines of organic farming. The current discussions are increasingly about the determination of breeding methods and the question of which technical interventions in practical breeding for organic farming are permitted and which are to be excluded. 2 On the other hand, it is a matter of finding a pragmatic interim solution as to how sufficient organically bred varieties can be available for organic farming by the year 2004 Objectives of organic cereal breeding Of course, the quality of the grain, for example in terms of baking ability, is also suitable for the organic cultivation method of great relevance. However, other special considerations also come into consideration. In organic farming, for example, nitrogen is not offered to plants in the form of freely soluble mineral fertilizers, but only in organically bound form, mostly in composted form. Consequently, the early growth of the plant and its driving force must be sufficient even under this reduced nitrogen supply. A variety that shows good growth under conventional growing conditions may be unsuitable for organic farming because of insufficient development at the beginning of the growing season. In conventional farming, the competitive behavior of cultivated plants with weeds does not play a decisive role. If the growth of weeds is favored by the shape or the delayed development of the crop, these are suppressed by herbicides.Since herbicides are not allowed to be used in organic farming, certain demands are made on the types of grain: The cultivated plant should have the ability to suppress the development of weeds through its own growth to such an extent that mechanical weed control is not necessary or only necessary to a limited extent . Another essential criterion in ecologically oriented plant breeding is the ability of the plants to adapt to their location. This criterion assumes that there is an interaction between the environment and the plant. The plant is a temporal figure that develops in the field of tension between environmental and hereditary forces. The plants adapt - even more than animals - in their species-specific appearance to the different environmental conditions of a place. This results in the strong difference between the genotype and the phenotype (appearance) that exist in plants. An example of the changeability of a plant in the area of influence of different environmental conditions can be considered the dandelion, which on the warm southern slope only produces a small shape, with deep indentations down to the central rib of the leaf, while the same species in the valley on a brook quite a large, can form a wide shape with round leaf shapes. In organic farming, the plants and varieties should be fertile (seed-proof) and stable so that they can adapt to landscape, environmental and cultivation conditions and develop with them. It is not about constantly developing new varieties, but rather about cultivating proven varieties in such a way that they can further develop and improve. In organic farming, great care is now taken to ensure that the plants develop as harmoniously as possible. This means, on the one hand, that the plant has the ability to react to various environmental influences and, on the other hand, that its development takes place rhythmically from germination to maturity. Embedded in the seasonal rhythms and the different nature of the environment, the plant reveals itself as a developing and diversely changing one. In this context, we speak of the essential development of a plant. 2 cf. the report of the Louis Bolk Institute On the Way to Sustainable Organic Plant Breeding by Lammerts v. Bueren et al. (1998).
13 The method of plant regeneration by Martin and Georg W. Schmidt 13 For ecological grain breeding, the regional adaptability of the cultivars is therefore an important objective. Such an alignment, however, stands in the way of a standardization of breeding criteria, as they are currently required by the Federal Plant Variety Office (for the recognition of commercial varieties) in accordance with the Seed Traffic Act. A variety introduced for a farm or a region with its special climatic, soil and economic structures can show quite contradicting results under different conditions and for other regions. In conventional agriculture, these differences can be compensated for through the cultivation measures, i.e. through the use of mineral fertilizers and herbicides or fungicides. In conventional farming this enables the use of supra-regionally grown varieties, whereas in organic farming the regionality of the varieties is a very important breeding measure. In organic farming, a natural development of the plants is promoted through targeted cultivation measures. In the meantime it has been shown that a low susceptibility of plants is not only dependent on hereditary resistance properties, but just as strongly on the growing conditions. In organic farming, a versatile balance is striven for by promoting soil life through organic fertilization, as well as through more frequent crop rotation and through the cultivation of varieties that are less demanding on the soil and at the same time less susceptible to disease. In this type of management, the presence of so-called harmful organisms does not have to cause any harmful effects. However, this suggests that the resistance properties probably do not only depend on the presence of certain genes, but also on the growing conditions and location factors. From a breeding perspective, it is therefore more sustainable to rely on general resistance than on monogenic resistances - which are often broken relatively quickly and therefore do not offer a long-term perspective. The ability of the plant and its varieties to ripen also plays an important role in organic farming and thus stands out from the criteria of conventional breeding. With many current varieties it can be observed that the ability of the plants to mature is no longer fully developed. The ears of grain have lost their color, so it is more likely that the still green stalk will die than the grain will ripen. In addition to these different breeding criteria, organically grown food - in contrast to conventionally produced products - also has different criteria for determining the quality. Because it is assumed that a natural, ecological production method leads to an increase in food quality. The breeding criteria in organic farming: Baking quality of the grain Sufficient yielding ability Shading ability (weed competition behavior) Location adaptability of the plant Long-term fertility of the variety Maturity of the plant High-quality food quality Grains for biodynamic farming Biodynamic farming is based on endeavors based on climatic factors , geological and company-specific conditions to develop a largely self-contained company organism that is as little dependent on resources from outside this agriculture as possible. The design of the courtyard organism is by no means to be understood as a nebulous, undifferentiated structure, but as a tool and guideline for practical implementation.
14 The method of plant regeneration by Martin and Georg W. Schmidt 14 a healthy operation and thus also to be seen as a measure for ecological grain breeding. The primary aim is not to preserve the farm organism in its agricultural tradition, but to understand it in its possibilities and fields of activity as a circular economy and to develop it further towards a human being with the latest and most modern, but based on ecological understanding as well as animal and plant-friendly type of business (cf. SCHAUMANN 1994: 320). The concept of the farm organism was developed by Rudolf Steiner - the founder of the biodynamic economy - in the agricultural course ". It is important to Steiner that the means for the production of agriculture come from the living conditions of the same location, are shaped and influenced by them As a result, they do not act as foreign bodies, which first have to be animated and thereby in a sense demand vital forces, but rather they remain within the organism from which they originate. For such a farm organism, varieties are required that have the ability have to be able to absorb and expand the operational potential, which can also dynamically adapt to the changing operational conditions.This requires internally reproducible varieties with a wide genetic variability - consequently population varieties 3. Especially if a variety for the biological -dynamic country cultivation is to be developed, the aspect of sustainability (long-term fertility) must be taken into account for a variety. In practice, difficulties often arise, as the longstanding cultivation of seeds shows. The originally uniform cultivars can split up and then degenerate into inconsistent manifestations, i.e. the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of a variety are no longer guaranteed. Fungal diseases that are passed on to the next generation with the seeds also damage long-term cultivation. Methods must therefore be worked out how the farm's own varieties can be cared for, preserved and further developed using the forces of the agricultural organism. This durability of a variety is dependent on further dynamic seed care on the farm. Years of research have shown that the newly acquired shape and plant properties can only be preserved if the plant in question remains in constant contact with its environment. The perimeter of a plant is determined by the location factors of the company, extends into the surrounding landscape and climatic zone and is co-determined by the rhythms of the earth organism and cosmic space. In biodynamic agriculture, Rudolf Steiner's statements in the agricultural course "form the basis for this natural form of cultivation. In these eight lectures of the course, Steiner also gave some starting points for future plant breeding. One of these approaches concerns the date of sowing. Steiner had recommended that cereals should be "sowed closer to the winter months in order to strengthen the reproductive capacity of the plants and closer to the summer months in order to promote nutritional quality. Biodynamic cereal growers Organic cereal breeding has developed particularly in the biodynamic sector." Based on suggestions from Rudolf Steiner, the first pioneers began with biodynamic grain breeding in the 20s of the last century. They developed their breeding methods in the context of an anthroposophical worldview. These pioneers include, among others, Immanuel Voegele, Hugo Erbe and Martin Schmidt, the Art 3 operated by them.This cannot be achieved with largely homogeneous line varieties and hybrids. Such hybrid varieties were developed using methods that lead to the fact that the plants are no longer able to form pollen, they can no longer be cultivated to the point of seed (cf. MÜLLER 1996). Open-pollinated varieties: reproductive community of individuals of an almost uniform variety, which is not the same in its hereditary constitution.
15 The method of plant regeneration by Martin and Georg W. Schmidt 15 of grain breeding is characterized by its individual design (cf. KEYSERLINGK 1993). At the end of the 20th century (1995) a working group of biodynamic grain growers was formed in Germany. You want to use a comprehensive (anthroposophical) knowledge of cultivated plants to breed new types of grain - especially for the needs of biodynamic agriculture. From a deep understanding of the growth, fruit formation and ripening processes, i.e. from a holistic, anthroposophical approach to the cultivated plant, an increase in food quality should be achieved at the same time. The working group has set itself the goal of exchanging and evaluating the best varieties and breeding lines in a round robin test and jointly developing criteria for biodynamic grain breeding. Different methods are used in breeding, depending on the breeder: in addition to the cross-breeding method, the time of sowing (close to winter / close to summer as well as certain constellations) and the corn bed method according to Martin Schmidt are taken into account. In the method of plant regeneration according to Martin and Georg W. Schmidt, a targeted inclusion of the earthly-cosmic rhythms takes place for the development of diverse resistances and sufficient food quality. These include in detail the daily and annual rhythms as well as the cosmic rhythms of the sun and planets with the inclusion of the moon as a mediator of these effects. In the course of using these regeneration methods, the plants undergo a transformation that leads to the development of a high degree of variability within a variety. This diversity enables the plant to adapt to the different locations - this variability is understood as a sign of increased vitality. In the method of plant regeneration it is assumed that the creation of durability, resistance and nutritional quality is only possible through the inclusion of the entire environment of the plant. The influences / forces that affect the plant from the habitat include the date of sowing, the planetary space, the person of the farmer who sows, the dynamization of the arable land, the hedge space around the area and the influence of the landscape and the climate. According to many years of experience in plant regeneration, the conversion of a new seed that has been included in regeneration to both the growing conditions of biodynamic farming and the individual conditions of the farm requires a period of up to ten years. If you deal with such development processes, it becomes clear that what seems to remain, for example of a variety, is constantly changing and changing out of its own dynamics. It shows its liveliness precisely because it constantly deals with its surroundings, is in a constant process of development. 1.2 Determining the quality of organically grown grain Preliminary remark In the use of grain, beginning with cultivation, through further processing stages to the end product and its consumption, quality evaluation has become an important factor and at the same time a problem area in organic farming. In each of the processing stages mentioned, from the seed to the consumable item, professional standards have been developed that can affect both the end user and the grower. Today's "taste" and the possibility of selling the product have an ever increasing influence on the quality education measures. For example, it became known from a larger biodynamic farm in Holland that a bulk buyer was only willing to buy the harvest of field vegetable products from the farmer if a commercial variety was grown. Similar examples are
16 The method of plant regeneration by Martin and Georg W. Schmidt 16 also known from Germany, where the hybrid varieties introduced in the trade mean that the seeds developed in organic cultivation could not be used because the end consumer relied entirely on these products and whose flavors have discontinued. It is therefore advisable to talk to the dealers of organically grown products about the extent to which the requirement for uniformity has not unduly influenced the regular quality requirements and which has created an option for those varieties that are productive and uniform, but for example have less taste. These few examples already make it clear which problem areas growers and breeders get into when they are asked and endeavored, as a contractual partner of one of the organic cultivation associations, to orient themselves according to the guidelines for seeds that are valid in Europe. According to these specifications, the seeds for organic farming may only come from the context of this cultivation method. In addition, the question arises as to whether the varieties bred in biodynamic farming for conventional cultivation conditions and their products that are used in marketing meet the expectations placed on them in terms of nutritional quality. The current requirements for the technical processing of food crops pose a further problem. For the current mechanized production of bread, the grain must have properties - the so-called baking quality - which ensure a machine-compatible production method. The so-called glue of the grain consists of two different protein fractions, glutenin and gliadin. Thanks to their mechanically strengthening properties, these proteins are extremely important for the baking process. With these glue proteins, the bread dough can be puffed up without losing its shape. This is a purely baking quality that should be rated negatively for nutrition. Gliadin and glutenin are proteins that are low in sulfur and essential amino acids, especially lysine. The other two proteins in the grain are albumin and globulin, which are extremely nutritious thanks to their high levels of the essential amino acid lysine and metabolically active sulfur. In the breeding of modern wheat varieties, attention is always paid to a high gluten content. However, these varieties are also widely used in biodynamic farming. If people are to be given life-promoting impulses through a diet with wheat from biodynamic cultivation, it must be ensured that, among other things, high levels of albumin and globulin are produced (cf. HAGEL 1999). It must be taken into account that today's modern wheat varieties were bred for different plant nutrition conditions than those found in organic farming.So if you want to produce wheat from biodynamic cultivation, which is not inferior but superior to mineral fertilized wheat in its nutritiousness, varieties must be bred that are specially adapted to the conditions of organic farming and not to those of conventional farming (with high nitrogen inputs ) are adjusted. In the case of grain in conventional farming, more and more processing and production-related aspects play a determining role in a unifying way. In organic farming, on the other hand, when looking at the quality of the grain, the focus is more on the cultivation process. A spring wheat variety Kollad developed by the HERA research center (in the Eifel region) was given to other biodynamic farms for testing and integration into the landscape. An examination of the harvests (1996) showed a completely different result at each location - depending on the different soil conditions: In the Cologne Bay with better, more fertile soils (than in the Eifel): The harvest sample already showed a grain that was too soft during the grinding process. In the Wittlich area, on the western edge of the Eifel: This harvest resulted in such a hard grain that was no longer suitable for a normal grinding process. In northern Luxembourg (western part of the Eifel), cultivation in a rough location with poor soils: In an analysis comparison with several wheat varieties from other origins, this variety showed particularly good values for protein content.
17 The method of plant regeneration by Martin and Georg W. Schmidt 17 The assessment of these different values is also based on material factors, which, however, are to be understood as an expression of a living interaction between landscape and plant organism. These examples show that the location has an influence both on the grain and on its baking properties. A deeper consideration of the three named locations provides information about which elements of the ether geography are primarily effective at these locations and have a direct influence on the grain development. In detail, these results show that only the rough location of the West Eifel (northern Luxembourg) showed the desired values, as this variety had already adapted to these location conditions in the Vulkaneifel. In the meantime, this type of wheat has also integrated into the very different location conditions of the Cologne Bay and, after two years of incorporation into the landscape, has also developed the necessary qualities for bread-making there Rudolf Steiner presented earthly and cosmic forces in the plant in the agricultural course. These are characterized by the four functions of reproduction and material formation as well as design and nourishment. Of these, in turn, the nutritiousness says something about the quality education. With the inclusion of the etheric formative forces in this approach, it becomes clear that it is predominantly the warm ether in the plant development that promotes the quality-building processes that we e.g. perceive as an improved aroma (fragrance, taste, nutritional power). The four named plant functions for their part have a special relationship to the four types of ether (see Chapter 2.4.), Because in the plant organism the four etheric formative forces also influence the development of the plant in different compositions. Life and chemical ether largely determine the first phase of vital development in spring. This dominance recedes when the light ether intervenes more intensely during the midsummer period, thereby refining the leaf development and intensifying the flowering process. In the further development of the summer months of July and August, the warm ether primarily determines the ripening process. In the overall development of the plant, a harmonious interaction of the four types of ether is necessary, which also creates the prerequisite for a balanced development of quality. In breeding, therefore, attention must be paid to harmonious growth so that the plant is suitable in terms of its disposition to bring earthly and cosmic forces into a balanced relationship. If this does not succeed, the one-sided strengthening of one plant function can lead to depletion or a lack of another function. A carrot that has been grown too strongly with mineral or organic fertilizer may have a good appearance, but the lack of shelf life shows that the earthly pole was too strong in relation to the inner creative power: the roots are too watery and quickly begin to rot . Most of our agricultural crops are mainly geared towards high yields, the etheric structure of these plants is strongly influenced by the ether of life (formation of matter). A harmony in growth and shape is a prerequisite for developing maturity and the associated food quality. With the help of the method of plant regeneration presented here, changing plant shapes and colors could be recorded and interpreted as external phenomena of an internal quality-building process. The following examples can be observed in a similar way in the transformation processes of cereals and some vegetable species: one-sided materially accentuated growth shows increased and prolonged leaf growth with late onset of flowering. Broad-leaved and coarse partly Asymmetrical shapes in dark and blue-green color indicate the overweight influence in the interaction of life and chemical ethers. Particular susceptibility to fungal and pest infestation are further characteristics of this quality-reducing development.
18 The method of plant regeneration by Martin and Georg W. Schmidt 18 articulated, symmetrical, parallel and elongated leaf shapes when the flowering process begins in good time, on the other hand, characterize a sufficient contribution of light and warmth ether. Rich green to light and yellow-green leaf colors characterize this type of plant with improved food quality and resistance. Targeted measures of breeding or plant transformation create the prerequisites that in the subsequent propagation and production cultivation, the mentioned quality-building properties are continued in the following replicas. Special methods of crop rotation, soil cultivation and fertilization create the prerequisite that the qualities inherent in the plant are further increased and retained in the harvested crops. The development of maturity plays an important role in this. In the case of many of the varieties common today, one can observe that the ability of the plants to ripen is no longer fully developed. The ears of grain have lost their color, so it is more likely that the stalks will die off than the grains will ripen. But only a ripe fruit has developed its flavor and aroma and is digestible. The basic aim of biodynamic agriculture is to produce food, that is, in the literal sense, means of life ", which not only preserves the physical body of the human being, but also stimulates and strengthens the spiritual and spiritual in the human being the question arises whether a ten-year-old grain that is no longer germinable, but can still be baked into bread, can be described as a healthy food, whether there is a difference to bread that was baked from grain that is still germinable, or whether it is the strength that produce a vital germ from the seed, are also of vital importance for human nutrition? There are still no clear answers to such questions. According to the teaching material, the need for nutrients such as carbohydrates for the nutrition of plants, animals and humans can be determined , Fats and proteins as well as minerals exactly - in the course of converting a company to ecological production methods e shows, however, that with the dynamization of the individual forms of production, the internal quality of the nutritional substances also gradually changes to such an extent that, for example, despite an increasing performance of the herd in milk production, a lower amount of feed is required every year. Similar observations were made in the stages of transformation of the plant. For example, food crops that have been fully converted to organic farming require less and less fertilizer every year, although they produce full yields. On the other hand, varieties newly included in the regeneration show a stunted appearance, as they cannot yet get by with the lower nutrient supply. Such conversion and transformation processes clearly show how a conversion in the direction of so-called "cosmic nutrition" can take place, which Rudolf Steiner had already pointed out in the "Agricultural Course" in the biological dynamic context. These change processes also have their corresponding validity for human nutrition. For this, however, humans also need food that has achieved the most harmonious interaction of the four types of ether in their own etheric structure. Humans not only consume the individual ingredients of a plant, but also the cosmic and earthly forces that could be condensed by the plant and can make them usable in the nutritional process (cf. KÜHNE 1999). If you want to find a measure of the quality of a food that is not based on the quantitative content of certain substances, then those properties must be taken into account, e.g. Smell, taste, color, consistency and shelf life that make up the vitality of the food. A concept of quality aligned in this way must therefore also look for the forces of living. In the language of anthroposophy, this quality is caused by the content and the interaction of the four ethereal formative forces, which determine the taste, digestibility and nutritional value of the food. With the help of the image-creating methods (rising image,
19 The method of plant regeneration by Martin and Georg W. Schmidt 19 Crystallization and droplet image method) these quality-building and life-process-promoting properties can be demonstrated Criteria for quality assessment It is one of the many years of experience in biodynamic agriculture and horticulture that Newly accepted varieties often change in the reproduction due to the influence of the dynamic measures. These changes in shape, color and other properties give on the one hand the opportunity to select suitable qualities and on the other hand the breeder and grower sees himself in a position to select qualities from the stocks for which criteria are to be named. As an orientation for this, the information in the 2nd lecture of the "Agricultural Course" (STEINER 1985) is indicative; according to which we should always recognize in the plant what is "cosmic" and what is "earthly-terrestrial": "You have to look at the shape of the plant if you want to understand the plants, the shape and the flower color of the plant see how far the cosmic and earthly work in it. " Two questions arise for this determination: Which characteristics and properties can be understood as cosmic and earthly oriented? (see Tab. 1-1). Which skills and methods have to be developed in order to be able to come to a sure judgment in this area? The following two examples are intended to illustrate the direction in which special activities are to be developed: The long-standing pharmaceutical manager of the Weleda medicinal product company in Schwäbisch-Gmünd, Dr. Merkel, recalled that problems in determining quality had already arisen in the 1960s and 1970s, as even the best analyzes could no longer distinguish between natural and synthetically produced essential oils. The only reliable method of checking was by scent control. The vegetable breeder Dieter Bauer from Dottenfelderhof near Bad Vilbel reported the following selection method from the development of a cabbage variety that has now been tested and recognized: First of all, suitable plants were selected from larger fields of field vegetables according to external criteria. The decisive selection, however, was made annually by means of a taste control. If, as a breeder, you also use taste as a selection criterion, you have direct access to the ripening processes of the fruit in question. At the same time, taste is a very human analysis. The good taste of a fruit or, for example, bread, signals that it is digestible. Tasty fruits are an expression of the harmonious growth of the plant. This becomes clear when irregularities in growth caused by diseases or weather patterns that are too wet or too dry result in deviations in taste in the fruit. One of the tasks of biodynamic plant breeding is, in addition to sufficient resistance of the food plants with a corresponding productivity, to develop a food quality that is also conducive to the spiritual development of people. In the Agricultural Course, Steiner posed the existential question: How can new forces be added to the nutritional basis of mankind, and thus also to life on earth, as a basis for further development in the future? 4 See work on this. Are food carriers of life energies? - New ways of determining the quality of food by BECHMANN and BECKMANN (1996), which gives an overview of the topic and of the methods for determining the vitality of food.
20 The method of plant regeneration by Martin and Georg W. Schmidt 20 According to Steiner's specifications, agriculture must be set up in such a way that the vital forces are effective in building up the food. Such a task at the same time raises the question of which characteristics show such quality, how can it be promoted and how can it be proven.
21 The method of plant regeneration by Martin and Georg W. Schmidt Fig. 1-1: 21 Quality research with image-creating methods, from: Zeitschrift Ökologie & Landbau, issue 117, 1/2001: 2. The figure shows the investigation of lager carrots of a population variety (left row ) and a hybrid variety (right row) with rising pattern (above), copper chloride crystallization (middle) and round filter chromatogram (below). The pictures come from Ms. Balzer-Graf, who makes the following general comments about the interpretation of the pictures: The individual images of the food are systematically evaluated morphologically. During the interpretation, however, the view must not be narrowed to the morphological details of the images. You have to learn to see the whole picture (BALZER-GRAF 2001: 22).
22 The method of plant regeneration by Martin and Georg W. Schmidt 22 Tab. 1-1: General earthly and cosmic growth tendencies of plants, (cf. SCHMIDT et al. 1995). Earthly qualities: Cosmic qualities: Ether types: Life ether, chemical ether. Plant function: Formation of matter, reproduction. Growth tendency: spreading, flat, asymmetrically flexible in shape. High variability. Conical, elliptical, round shapes. B. plate root branching of the flower stem possible (trees) leaf area: coarse formation leaf edge: little shaped leaf position: alternating ether types: light ether, warmth ether plant function: design, nourishing growth tendency: radiant, surface-forming symmetrical shape fidelity parallel shapes emphasis on verticals e.g. B. taproot flower stalk without branching single stem principle (trees) top formation leaf surface: fine structure z. B. in leaf veins and hairs Leaf margin: creased serrated serrated leaf position: opposite
23 The method of plant regeneration by Martin and Georg W. Schmidt 23 Overview 1-1: The image-creating methods Image-creating methods At the suggestion of Rudolf Steiner, attempts were already made in the twenties to show the etheric forces of formation with the help of experimental methods. It was also about the question of how the biological quality of food can be reliably determined. The image-creating methods are the fruits of the effort to grasp life in a lifelike manner. Pfeiffer, Kolisko, Selawry, Engquist, Hauschka and Fyfe are pioneers of these methods. Based on their research and more recent work, it is now possible to clearly differentiate and qualitatively assess the qualities of agricultural products from cultivation methods of different degrees of greening as well as products from different processing methods (see Fig. I-1). Copper chloride crystallization according to Pfeiffer An aqueous extract from the test material is mixed with a copper chloride solution and water. A standardized amount of this is placed in a crystallizing dish and placed in a climatic chamber at constant temperature and humidity without vibrations. The solution slowly crystallizes out. As a result of this process, a crystal image is created on the bottom of the crystallizing dish, depending on the solvent used. Fyfe rise pattern An aqueous extract from the test sample is made to rise in a suitable concentration in a chromatography paper. After an intermediate drying time of two to three hours, a silver nitrate solution rises. This exceeds the juice dough front by just under a centimeter.The rising fronts of the first and second rising phases often remain recognizable as a horizontal line in the finished image. After another drying time, the third climbing phase with iron sulfate follows up to a total height of approx. Twelve centimeters. After the subsequent drying process, there is an additional-specific image in the paper. Round filter chromatogram according to Pfeiffer A round chromatogram paper is impregnated with a silver nitrate solution up to a radius of four centimeters using a wick that is attached to the center. After a drying time of two to three hours, the extract of the material to be examined rises in a new wick. The rising process is stopped as soon as the solution in the paper has spread to a radius of six centimeters. After the images have dried, exposure to diffuse light is necessary for image development.
24 The method of plant regeneration by Martin and Georg W. Schmidt 24 2 The method of plant regeneration 2.1 Introduction to the method The method of seed regeneration developed by Martin and Georg Wilhelm Schmidt essentially consists in introducing forces from the environment to the plant and its plant Inclusion in the generation sequence of the plant. Their concern is not the breeding of new varieties, but the recognition and handling of power relations in the plant, which are expressed in their development and shape. The point is to cultivate proven varieties in such a way that they can continue to develop and improve. This breeding strategy was developed in the context of the anthroposophical understanding of nature. It aims to use the etheric formative powers (see chapter) for seed development and to breed varieties that are adapted to individual locations. The breeding process is designed in such a way that plants from which seeds are to be obtained are grown under different conditions (i.e. in different formative forces). This placement of the plant in different milieus causes it to come to life, it dissolves its one-sidedness and gains a new ability to adapt to the influences from the environment. A systematic variation of the growing conditions results in a high level of variability in the seed. If this is successful, an attempt is made to cultivate the seeds, which vary widely in their properties, at the destination and, step by step, to select those for further seed production from the plants that grow optimally at this location. The test plants are treated according to the specifications of biodynamic farming throughout the entire vegetation period. The desired breeding goals are achieved without the use of cross-breeding through the following measures: Change in the choice of the sowing time taking into account certain annual and daily rhythms, e.g. Summer and winter sowing as well as morning and evening sowing. One or more years of relocation, e.g. between mountain and coastal areas, granite and limestone weathered soils. Selection of constellations of individual planets when sowing to promote reduced plant functions such as substance formation, reproductive power, resilience and nutritiousness. The typical effects of the planet on individual plant functions are taken into account, e.g. Moon in connection with reproductive power or sowing times to strengthen the formation of roots with the planet Saturn. Individual use of the biodynamic compost and spray preparations, e.g. in the seed bath or for the duration of the respective vegetation period. Targeted selection of the seed origin from the upper (peripheral), middle or lower area of the mother plant or the infructescence as well as inclusion of a certain type of sowing, the "ear bed method". From the diversity shown, it is understandable that such a plant regeneration cannot be carried out according to given recipes. For each damaged plant variety, each place and each point in time, the individual measures must be selected and redefined every year. This requires therapeutic and creative skills in handling the plant that have been developed over many years. The regeneration method causes the following plant transformations: 5 In the chapter, the anthroposophical understanding of nature in relation to plant regeneration is presented.
25 The method of plant regeneration by Martin and Georg W. Schmidt Supplement or reduction of one-sidedness in order to create an equilibrium of forces in the four plant functions: development of materiality, reproductive power, resilience and nourishment. 2. Development of high variability and diversity in plant seeds. These seeds, which vary widely in their properties, can adapt well to the destination. 2.2 Initial situations for plant regeneration Introduction Before starting seed regeneration, a diagnosis must be made to determine the relationship between the four plant functions: substance formation, design (and resistance) as well as reproduction and nutritional value in the plant. According to an ethereal law, the greatest life force prevails in the interaction of all four etheric forces, so that only in the differentiated cooperation of the four ether types in the organisms can fruitful developments arise. In the case of cereals, a balance between the four types of ether means that the most important vital functions in the cereal plants - food quality, reproductive and resilience as well as material formation (productivity) - can develop. On the other hand, a strengthening or too much of a single force or plant function causes a reduction in the other force. For example, an emphasis on the formation of substances, a drain on the plant function causes design / resistance. The plant then shows, for example, a pithy growth and poorly developed leaves. Our current agricultural crops are mainly geared towards high yields, consequently the etheric structure of these plants is one-sidedly shaped by the ether of life (see Chapter 2.4.). Even in the first stages of grain regeneration, e.g. a variety of rye with a small but uniform ear a variety of ear shapes shaped by earthly and cosmic forces. Further characteristics in the initial phase of regeneration are the elongation of the ear and the stalk and the change in the color of the plant. In the regeneration of grain, the following plant characteristics are particularly considered: uniform stem length in all plants in the stand stable stem thickness without tendency to bed tapering of the stem thickness under the ear base, thereby "nodding" the ear parallel ear shapes from the base to the tip sufficiently wide spacing between the layers on the spindle good grain stocking Good bread grain quality or baking quality with a sufficient amount of grain layers Examples of initial situations for the seeds (seed origin) Old country varieties: These varieties have properties that have developed from the character of the landscape and the soil conditions in connection with the farming skills. The old local varieties are adapted to the respective site conditions and stable inheritance takes place in the replica. The yield of these varieties is significantly lower compared to the modern high-performance varieties, but their permanent fertility and their resistance to fungi and pests is often higher. These varieties are mostly no longer cultivated by breeding today. Old
26 The method of plant regeneration by Martin and Georg W. Schmidt 26 Local varieties show a great genetic diversity, which is why they are stored in gene banks in order to be preserved as gene reserves for the future. Einkorn, Emmer, Dinkel: These are the first cultivated forms of wheat that arose in ancient Persia (6000 BC) in the local cultural sites. They can be seen as archetypes of wheat that are "spaceless" and "timeless". This means that the shape developed at that time has hardly changed at all since then ("timeless"). In addition, these varieties do not change their appearance even if they are grown in a different landscape or a different climatic area ("spaceless"). Viewed from the perspective of the etheric forces, this could mean that einkorn, emmer and spelled have a very firmly established etheric body that is difficult to change. Modern high-performance varieties: These cereal varieties are characterized by high productivity, a uniform appearance, extensive independence from the location conditions and the landscape in which they are grown, as well as a lack of permanent fertility, the yield security of which is often no longer guaranteed in the second year of cultivation. These types are dependent on external mineral fertilizers and chemical pesticides. The ripening grain is often pale and dull in color. These high-performance varieties are very one-sided in their etheric formative forces with a strong dominance of the ether of life (formation of matter), so they have only a limited possibility to come into contact with the etheric forces of the landscape or the influences of the etheric forces of formation from the planetary space - see here Tab: Frequently occurring deficiencies Degeneration of the seed: All essential functions of the plant are reduced: insufficient germination capacity, low budding force, poor tillering, decline in productivity, no more seed reproduction possible. The etheric forces of formation of these plants are only very weak, i.e. too little effect of all four etheric forces in these plants. For therapy, this seed must be exposed to vitalizing regeneration influences. Cultivated fattening "of the seeds: These varieties are characterized by dark green, broad, fattened leaves. These varieties react strongly to the nitrogen available in the soil. This phenomenon can also occur in organic farming. This one-sided action of the ether leads to increased susceptibility to fungi. In therapy In this seed, the influence of the formation of substances (influence of the ether of life) must be reduced and the design / resistance strengthened by the increased influence of light and heat ether. 2.3 Stages of plant regeneration Loosening phase In this first phase of seed regeneration, the plants are annually changing Exposed to environmental influences, ie the cultivation conditions change over time, based on the date of sowing and they change in place, based on the cultivation location. Due to the rhythmic change of the temporal and spatial environmental factors (sowing dates, soils, landscape) "verleb the plant ends, i.e. the plant is loosened in its rigid genetic inheritance and it reacts flexibly to the influences from its environment. The plant regains a certain inner "mobility" in order to be able to adapt to different locations.
27 The method of plant regeneration by Martin and Georg W. Schmidt 27 The aim of plant therapy is to bring the plant to life, return to diversity, long-term fertility and the connection to the environment. With this form of breeding strategy, emphasis is placed on a change in space (when choosing the location) when choosing the geological source rock (Jurassic limestone, granite, slate, etc.) when choosing the landscape (plains, valleys, low mountain ranges, mountain areas, etc.) when choosing the climate zones (maritime climate, mountain climate) in time (when choosing the sowing date) annual rhythm (close to summer, close to winter) daily rhythm (evening sowing, morning sowing) cosmic rhythm (full moon - new moon) These individual spatial and temporal factors can be influenced by the cosmic and The alternation of the influence of cosmic and earthly forces on plant growth plays a decisive role in the vitalization of the plant. Through these measures, a harmonious balance of formative forces can develop in the plant and one-sided properties of the plants, such as the tendency to fattening or susceptibility to fungus can be overcome (see. Tab. 2-2). Noticeable effects of the measures in this loosening phase are that some cereal plants break out of the cultivated uniform appearance of the variety: They later stretch in the stalk also in the inflorescence. The fungus resistance of the plants increases, as does their color and luminosity. These plants are then selected for further breeding. In order to document changes in the plants, these must be monitored continuously and intensively throughout the entire growth period. With the help of a defined identification key, e.g. Through the exact rating of the ears in the different stages of ripeness, both the specific forces for the individual ear as well as the etheric formative forces acting in from the environment become recognizable. Reactions of the plant in the loosening phase are: stretching of the root, stalk (or stalk) and ear, emergence of new color nuances on the stalk, stem knot and ear, appearance of shine during the ripening period. The plants are grown in a breeding garden set up for this purpose using the biodynamic farming method. The trial areas can be given a four-part crop rotation (wintering, legumes, summer and root crops), in which only a slight compost is added to the root crops. by stretching the stalk, stalk and fruit cluster, targeted regeneration measures can begin. The above-mentioned preponderance of a watery-material one-sidedness of the chemical and life ether with insufficient straightening power and reduced life functions are first of all added to the light-etheric influences from the closer and wider area. In the transformation phase, the deficiencies and one-sidedness identified are counteracted by the following regeneration measures (see Chapter 3):
28 The method of plant regeneration by Martin and Georg W. Schmidt 28 In the ear or fruit bed, individual hereditary characteristics can be seen; it is precisely the different layer qualities that are special features of the ear bed (cf. Schmidt, M. 1960; v. Wistinghausen Eine Wintersaat ( End of December to beginning of January) in the course of a plant biography lasting several years, vitality and resistance (cf. ERDMENGER / Schmidt 1971). With selected moon and planetary constellations, reproductive capacity, food quality and resilience can be increased (cf. Spieß 1993; Schmidt et al. 1995) Taking into account the position of the moon and planets in the zodiac promotes the plant organs root, leaf, blossom and fruit (cf. Thun / Heinze 1977) .The individual use of biodynamic compost and spray preparations promotes, among other things, the silica, lime, iron and Phosphorus processes (cf. Schmidt 1995; Lievegoed 1992). In a period of usually - five years, the following changes are effected in different order with the measures mentioned: All types of grain reach stalk lengths, e.g. for rye from 1.5 to 2.0 meters, for wheat and oats from 0.8 to 1.2 meters. What is striking is the simultaneous development of stability and righting force after wind loads. The predominantly horizontal and superficial roots of cereal varieties are transformed into deep length roots that can withstand storm loads. The susceptibility of many types and types of grain to fungal attack (powdery mildew, rust, ergot, fire, etc.) can be overcome. In these first two phases, the genetic diversity of old varieties is evident in the appearance of different types of plants. These are selected and grown as separate breeding lines to check their properties. Using the example of the winter rye Martin Schmidt ", the spike types can be divided into seven groups (see Fig. 2-1). These spike types show the different interaction of the four types of ether. Type 1, the grass type, corresponds in phenotypic appearance to the wild grass with high resistance, reproduction and permanent fertility. But since it hardly develops caryopses (grains), it lacks the quality characteristic of food quality and yield, which is essential for optimal, organically grown seeds At the other extreme, the wild grass type is contrasted with the spike shape of the husk type. This spike type is reflected in the degenerate high-performance hybrid variety of the new cultivated plant, which is referred to as solidified and uniform. uniform), resistance and nutritional ttel quality is possible. While the wild grass type is assigned to the cosmic pole with pronounced shape formation, the husk type with high yields and pronounced grains is assigned to the earthly pole and thus to the one-sided formation of material. Type formation In order to lead the "original grain, which is fixed in its shape into a variability, several regeneration steps are necessary necessary, because only in the further course of regeneration does a steadily increasing formation of plant and ear types occur.These types differ conspicuously in shape, in color but also in the changed plant properties.Shape: Compared to the original form of uniform, uniformed shape, for example in the form of a low stalk and an often short and squat ear, after a few regeneration steps, the shape of the plant can be divided into cosmically oriented types with parallel, long ears and with stalks tapering strongly upwards and on the other hand
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