Will Jimmy Wales ever visit Nepal

Lucky find shale gas?

8
min2014

That summer, millions of people around the world watched the 2014 World Cup on television. Believe it or not, some would argue that there are more important things in life than football, as INCH found, than looking for more unusual, extreme ones sports and other events came about.

  1. The marathon des sables
    One would think that Mauro Prosperi's incredible survival story would be enough to discourage anyone from participating in the Sand Marathon, a 150-mile run across the Sahara desert. But people are queuing to pay at least 2,700 euros to attend. The race, also known as the “toughest run in the world”, corresponds to six marathons at temperatures of up to 49 ° C. Walking in the sand dunes can cause feet to swell. After three days, your feet may feel like concrete blocks. You have to carry everything yourself that you need for the six-day run, except water. This is kindly made available by the organizers. Almost 64 liters per day per participant. But it is unlikely that Mauro would ever want to take part again. Twenty years ago the Italian policeman got lost in a sandstorm, had nothing to eat or drink after 36 hours and spent nine days alone in the desert before he was found 299 kilometers off the beaten track by a nomad family. He had survived by drinking his own urine and eating bats and snakes.

  2. The tomatina
    Spain's tomatina is the ultimate battle with food. There are no winners or losers: just a sea of ​​red faces when the battle is over. In the past 50,000 visitors thronged the streets of Bunol near Valencia to throw 140 tons of overripe, mashed tomatoes at each other. Today the organizers only sell up to 20,000 tickets. Shopkeepers protect their shop windows with huge plastic sheeting during the hour-long street battle. A cannon shot signals the beginning and another the end of the fight. When it's over, the city streets and walls get hose hose down while everyone takes a shower. The annual festival is said to go back to a group of young people who picked tomatoes from a vegetable stand in August 1945 and started throwing them at each other while moving through Bunol.

  3. The North Pole Marathon
    Of all marathons, the North Pole Marathon is arguably the coldest. This year, armed soldiers patrolled the marathon route as the 48 athletes from 16 countries braved the threat of hungry polar bears, temperatures of -47 ° C and floating ice floes to run the 42 kilometers. There are always so few participants that they can all be mentioned on the official website of the organizer. Participant Robert Plinjnaar from Holland wore three pairs of socks and three layers of clothing to keep warm. "I started out wearing a mask and ski goggles, but after 100 meters it was like looking through an aquarium, so I had to take them off. Unfortunately because of this I suffered frostbite around my eyes and nose", he said.

  4. World championship in tuna throwing
    This is a hammer throwing competition with a surprising twist. Instead of a heavy ball, the participants toss a frozen tuna around their head with a rope and then throw it as far as possible. Whoever throws the 7.7 kg bluefin tuna farthest at the Tunaramain festival near Port Lincoln / South Australia will be the world record holder.

  5. The jungle marathon
    If you're afraid of piranhas, it's probably best to avoid the jungle marathon. Organizers believe that only the brave should register for this race, which is said to be one of the hardest, wettest and hottest ultra-marathons in the world. You can understand why. In addition to the high temperatures, the runners have to wade through swamps where anacondas lurk, climb steep, slippery, muddy hills, traverse dense undergrowth, cross piranha-infested rivers and spend more than one night in the depths of the Amazonian jungle where jaguars and howling Keep monkeys company. All runners must have a knife, a copy of their health insurance policy, and enough food for the seven-day, 254-kilometer race to the finish. If you are unlucky enough to need an intravenous infusion, two hours are added to the target time.

  6. Mastery in cheese rolling
    An American Army veteran traveled more than 6,500 kilometers from his home in Colorado Springs last year to roll a three-kilogram wheel of cheese down a steep hill in Gloucestershire, UK. This age-old cheese-rolling competition at Cooper’s Hill is an annual spectacle that attracts large audiences. Every year spectators watch a couple of cheese rollers roll down the hill behind the cheese, which can reach top speeds of 112 km / h. The first to reach the bottom gets the cheese. Over the years there have been repeated injuries. In 2009, a bystander was injured when he fell from a tree and had to be carried away with a stretcher and suspected broken bones.

  7. The iditarod sled dog race
    In the Iditarod sled dog race, humans and animals run against nature and it means that "Last great race in the world". Dog sled drivers and their dogs traverse 1,600 kilometers of the most pristine, beautiful scenery that Alaska has to offer, including rugged mountain ranges, frozen rivers, deep forests, and miles of windswept coastline, in temperatures often sub-zero and winds that are completely blind.

  8. World championship in bog snorkeling
    There is not much to see at the World Championships in bog snorkeling, also because participants can only emerge from the murky, 55-meter-long swamp trenches to check whether they are snorkeling in the right direction. However, this does not prevent the crowd from taking a position along the two muddy trenches, nor the participants, who came from France, Germany, Australia, New Zealand and Canada last year, from jumping headlong into the ice-cold, foul-smelling moor. The championships are held each year in Llanwrtyd Wells, Britain's smallest town. Participants must have two lengths of the 1.8 meter deep swamp trench "Swim through"without doing conventional swimming strokes. But you are not alone. All kinds of crawfish swim in the water, including the apparently harmless water scorpion.
  9. Jump over babies
    One of the strangest - and perhaps a bit unsettling - events is Baby Jumping, where men dressed as devils jump over newborn babies lying on a mattress in the street. The festival, which dates back to 1620, takes place every year in Castrillo de Murcia in Spain and is part of the Catholic Corpus Christi celebrations. This is to clean the souls of babies, drive away evil spirits and save them from sins.

  10. The tenzing-hillaryeverest marathon
    Much of the Tenzing Hillary Everest Marathon may go downhill, but don't be fooled into assuming that it will make it easy. Organizers of this annual event point out that participants must have been in Nepal for three weeks before the run begins so that they can get used to the altitude. The three day "Vacation" includes a 14-day hike to the start of the marathon: Everest base camp (5,364 meters). This under medical supervision and with an ascent of Kala Patthar (5,545 meters) to enjoy the best views of Everest. During the race itself, which includes two steep uphill sections, zigzag paths of the Khumbu Icefall are crossed until you reach the finish at Namche Bazaar.

  11. World championship in women's wear
    Finland may have invented the world championship in women's wear, but men come from all over the world to compete in this epic display of brute strength. Participants have to cross a one meter deep pool of water, jump over hurdles and run as fast as possible with their wives hanging upside down on the runner's back. A wife must weigh at least 49 kilograms or she must carry a heavy backpack. If it falls, it will incur a 15 second time penalty. The man who covers this 253 meter long obstacle race in the shortest possible time receives his wife's weight in beer. The World Cup has existed since 1992 and is said to be based on the legend of a merciless gang boss who loved to steal women from neighboring villages.

  12. The comrades ultra marathon
    Ultra marathons may only have recently become so popular, but some, like the 90-kilometer Comrades Marathon in South Africa, have been around for many years. It took place for the first time on May 24, 1921 between Durban and Pietermaritzburg. It is said to be the largest and oldest ultra marathon in the world. The direction of the race will be between the "Uphill race" (87 kilometers) starting in Durban and the "Downhill Race" (89 kilometers) alternated from Pietermaritzburg. The idea came from Vic Clapham, a World War I veteran, to commemorate the South African soldiers who died in the war. Clapham, who had endured a 2,700 kilometer march through East Africa, wanted the commemoration to be a unique test of physical endurance for the participants. The statutes of the race refer to one of its main objectives, namely to celebrate that "The human spirit survives even in the face of dire need." 18,000 runners take part each year, including a team from INEOS in 2013, when Jim Ratcliffe, Leen Heemskerk, Chris Woods, Oliver Hayward-Young, George Ratcliffe and Alessia Maresca successfully completed the race.

More from INCH Magazine

Dwindling ethane reserves in the North Sea are jeopardizing the competitiveness of INEOS 'production sites in Grangemouth, Scotland, and Rafnes, Norway. In addition, the very future of petrochemicals across Europe is threatened by rising energy costs. Industrial producers who want to be competitive on international markets are well aware of this problem. But while many await a political solution, INEOS is taking action to save its business before it's too late. Starting next year, we will be importing US shale ethane at competitive prices for our gas crackers in Europe. Now you have to think about the long term and try to get hold of domestic gas deposits from British shale gas. Video Hydraulic fracking has reinvigorated industrial production in America. The same could happen in the UK and continental Europe. INEOS could soon make a bold attempt to drill for shale gas. This could make it possible to preserve the future of industrial production and improve the security of energy supplies in the UK. At a time when it is impossible to make a decision about shale gas in Europe, which is now one of the most expensive locations in the world for the production of petrochemicals, INEOS is once again taking the initiative. We have now acquired two licenses for domestic gas production from shale gas in Scotland. Although activities at these sites have not yet commenced, INEOS has already started a full and open consultation with local communities and promised to share 6 percent of the drilling revenues with homeowners, landowners and local authorities. INEOS believes that current arrangements with individuals and communities are not sufficiently fair and equitable to convince UK citizens that onshore drilling for natural gas is worthwhile. But we believe that a combination of public hearings and a more equitable distribution of the revenues could lead to a better understanding and acceptance of this important technology. "We believe our plan could bring real change to the UK," said INEOS CEO Jim Ratcliffe. “If we pay 6 percent of the income directly to those who live directly above shale gas drilling sites, that means that the proceeds will be distributed fairly between everyone. This is what America is doing, and we think it is the right thing to do here because churches have to put up with some six months of inconvenience. "INEOS believes that this could ultimately make more than £ 2.5 billion. "This can make an important contribution to the construction of new schools, parks, community centers and even hospitals," continued Jim. “With that you can totally change these communities. It's a big way to improve their living conditions. "This news was welcomed by the UK Country Land and Business Association. This association represents the interests of landowners in the rural areas of England and Wales. "These proposals could accelerate the development of this industry, which is important if shale gas is to contribute to the security of energy supplies in the UK and to provide a bridging fuel for a low-carbon economy as advocated by the government," said President Henry Robinson. According to him, the association has repeatedly made the argument that it would be beneficial to the UK shale gas industry if it offered an incentive to landowners and communities. "It only seems right and reasonable for those who are being drilled underground to receive some of the proceeds from the drilling." INEOS now has a stake in two production licenses. In August, BG Group acquired a 51 percent stake in the slate layer of a production license (PEDL 133) covering 329 square kilometers around the Grangemouth refinery and petrochemical plant in Scotland. At that point, Gary Haywood, CEO of INEOS Upstream, the group’s new oil and gas company, indicated that INEOS could now become a major player in the UK in the onshore gas exploration industry. "We already have a large UK facility, existing manufacturing capacity and an exemplary success rate in health and safety, so this is a logical next step for INEOS," he said. In September, INEOS, one of the very few companies that can use shale gas as both a fuel and feedstock in its manufacturing facilities, took another giant leap by promising a profit-sharing scheme to communities. INEOS believes that profit-sharing can give local people a real share in the success of any business. Typically, residents of a shale gas community (around 100 square kilometers) would benefit from the production of 200 wells and split £ 375 million among themselves. Property and landowners who live immediately above the drilling sites would receive £ 250 million. The remainder of an INEOS shale gas community would receive 125 million. "Over the life of a single well, property owners and landowners would receive over £ 1.3 million and the community £ 600,000," said Jim. On October 13, 2014 INEOS announced that it had reached an agreement with Reach Coal Seam Gas Limited to acquire an 80 percent stake in the production license (PEDL 162) alongside the first license in central Scotland at Grangemouth, where, according to the British Geological Society, significant gas reserves are slumbering. As part of the deal, INEOS will use the license and fund the initial on-site work to see if the natural gas can be economically extracted. "It is very important for us to be quick to respond to assess the potential of this resource," said Gary. "If we can, we will provide a local source of inexpensive energy and raw materials to support industrial production jobs in Scotland." INEOS is currently spending hundreds of millions of pounds in massive amounts of competitively priced shale gas from the US import to Grangemouth to protect the future of his gas cracker in Scotland as natural gas resources in the North Sea decline. But this decision to independently drill in the UK is a new - and exciting - project.The UK Industrial Representation Institute of Directors believes that one UK shale gas industry could create 74,000 jobs and support many hundreds of thousands of manufacturing jobs beyond that. "UK shale gas could potentially meet a significant part or even all of UK natural gas needs in the future," said Jim. “For the first time in many years, this would give the UK security of energy supply. In this way, industrial production and jobs in Europe can be protected by securing inexpensive energy and raw materials and thus having a more competitive industrial production. Our intention is simple: we hope to preserve and create jobs in the core regions of British manufacturing. "Shale gas also emits around half as many greenhouse gas emissions as hard coal, which means that, as in the USA, these can be significant in the UK be reduced. INEOS has an exemplary success rate in health and safety in the petrochemical industry. This success rate speaks volumes. In addition, the world's leading experts in shale gas extraction and hydraulic fracking work exclusively for INEOS in Europe. Therefore, citizens should have more confidence in the company's ability to safely extract natural gas. Few companies in the UK have the expertise or infrastructure like INEOS to safely handle pressurized, flammable gases. Our surface experience is well known and over the past 12 months INEOS Upstream has built a team of world-leading experts in shale gas exploration and production to further strengthen its onshore gas legitimation. "It is extremely important that citizens know that shale gas can be extracted, transported and processed safely and in an environmentally responsible manner," said Jim. “INEOS is a company that is used to dealing with complicated petrochemical processes. Therefore, the very highest standards always apply. "

The top three world experts credited with perfecting American shale gas exploration now work exclusively for INEOS in Europe. Over the next five years, petroleum engineer Nick Steinsberger and geologists Kent Bowker and Dan Steward will advise INEOS on how best to safely develop the vast UK reserves. All three were for Mitchell Energy & amp; Development, who pioneered the most effective method for the safe extraction of shale gas in the Barnett Shale in the USA and thus contributed to the triggering of the shale gas boom there. "They have extensive knowledge of successful shale gas production," said Garry Haywood, CEO of INEOS 'newly formed shale gas team, known as INEOS Upstream. “We are confident that our US team, together with our experts, can safely and effectively build a successful business in Scotland that will play a role in ensuring the energy security of Scotland and the rest of the UK, with significant economic benefits Will bring benefits to the country and communities. Nick, Kent and Dan have been in the shale gas exploration business since the 1980s and are recognized as leaders in their field. Tom Crotty, INEOS Corporate Affairs Director, described Nick as the best onshore natural gas engineer in the world. "INEOS is one of the world's leading largest chemical companies," he said. “We are used to operating huge petrochemical plants safely. Now we have some of the world's leading shale gas experts on our team who have jointly completed thousands of wells. We are of the opinion that the combination of specialist knowledge as a global petrochemical company and their know-how in the shale gas sector should show citizens that we are committed to a very high safety standard and want to promote shale gas production responsibly. "

The good news continues for INEOS ’Petrochemicals Plant in Grangemouth.The confirmation of a £ 230 million loan guarantee from the UK government this summer has now helped INEOS find the funding necessary to ensure INEOS O&P UK can build a natural gas tank to carry competitively priced imports of ethane from America to save - and thus to make his lossy business profitable. Chief Financial Officer Gerry Hepburn said the government's financial guarantee was seen as "crucial" for INEOS to secure the long-term future of one of the UK's largest industrial locations. "The loan guarantee shows support for both the UK petrochemical industry and one of Scotland's major infrastructure projects," he said. “We were able to use the loan guarantee to obtain INEOS funding by issuing a public bond. The proceeds of the bond will now be used to fund the ethane storage project. INEOS has already invested more than £ 300 million in its Grangemouth site as part of its long-term survival plan to ensure the site will continue to produce petrochemicals beyond 2017 if the current gas supply contracts expire. Typically, Grangemouth relied heavily on ethane from the North Sea, but those resources are declining and the INEOS site has been able to operate at a reduced rate. US imports of ethane used as feedstock will help INEOS keep its facilities running at full production levels and reduce operating costs as a future guarantee for production at Grangemouth. "This is probably one of the most important recent projects in Scotland, the effects of which are likely to be felt across the UK, not just for employment but for industrial production in general," said INEOS CEO Jim Ratcliffe. INEOS has placed the order with Germany-based company TGE Gas Engineering to build the ethane storage tank, which will be the largest in Europe and have a capacity of 33,000 tons of ethane. "The storage tank is complicated to build and requires expertise," said John McNally, CEO of INEOS O&P, UK. "But we know we are working with a company that is a leader in its field." TGE built the INEOS ethylene import storage tank in Antwerp, Belgium, and is currently building the ethane import storage tank at INEOS 'facility in Rafnes, Norway. The construction permit for the ethane storage tank in Grangemouth was granted by the Falkirk local council in May of this year. "You will respond gratefully to the renewal of the site if the result becomes visible when the construction work begins," says Gerry. Danny Alexander, Secretary of State at the UK Treasury, said the Grangemouth Guarantee was great news for Scotland's economic future and the UK's energy sector. The quantities of ethane imported from the USA will enable the gas cracker in Grangemouth to operate at double the production capacity.

After signing groundbreaking 15-year contracts with America for inexpensive shale gas-mined ethane, INEOS decided it was time to see how the US was doing it and what Europe could learn from it. Ships unlike any other in the world will be leaving American ports for the first time next year. Each of these ships will carry thousands of tons of liquefied ethane for INEOS gas crackers in Europe to supply them with raw materials that are running out in the North Sea and to reduce the operating costs of the gas crackers. Each day, 40,000 barrels of shale gas ethane, cooled to a temperature of minus 95.55 degrees Celsius, will leak from Marcus Hook, Philadelphia, towards Norway and Scotland, UK. Dragon Boats Vid "Nobody has ever shipped ethane around the world in this volume," said INEOS CEO Jim Ratcliffe. “These ships have never been designed before and have never crossed the North Atlantic. This is a real first. "INEOS needs ethane to produce high quality petrochemicals, but if our sites in Europe are to remain competitive we need to source supplies from America, which is available in large quantities at affordable prices. "We are actually transporting US economic conditions to Europe," continued Jim. These state-of-the-art ships, built in China, are extremely efficient and will have twin engines so that they can operate under the toughest conditions. Meanwhile, INEOS is building new export facilities in the US and storage tanks in Rafnes and Grangemouth. The journey across the Atlantic begins in Marcus Hook, the former location of a crude oil refinery that produced gasoline, diesel and kerosene for more than a century. Around 500 workers were laid off when the loss-making facility finally had to close in 2011 due to difficult market conditions. Today it is being converted into a major liquefied natural gas processing and transportation center due to its connections with Pennsylvania's Marcellus shale gas industry. "It was a very deprived area," said Tom Crotty, INEOS corporate affairs director. “Much of the city was built around industry like the refinery. Jobs depended on it. But suddenly this community was brought back to life after lying paralyzed on the ground - by shale gas. "Marcus Hook was the first stop on the recent exploration tour in the USA by Jim and an INEO team. INEOS, which invested in its own team of experts to weigh the pros and cons of shale gas exploration in the UK and see - and understand - how it could work in Europe. The group spent a day at Marcus Hook before visiting the Barnett shale gas field in Texas, where the very first horizontal shaft is drilled. The role was explained by Nick Steinsberger, who Tom says is the best onshore oil engineer in the world. "Lots of others tried and given up, but Nick figured out how to break up the rock," says Tom. “He was the first to use hydraulic fracking called slick water to break up the Barnett shale gas field in Texas. In doing so, he made global production possible and achieved the breakthrough. Nick previously worked for Mitchell Energy & amp; Development, at that time still with the company's founder George Mitchell. The company was sold for $ 3.5 billion in 2002. Today Nick runs his own company. Nick later escorted the INEOS delegation to southwestern Pennsylvania to the Marcellus shale gas field, one of the world's largest natural gas reserves. "He wanted us to see it because it looks a lot like in Europe with a green, hilly landscape," says Tom. "Now there are just as strict regulations there." This was an aha experience for Tom. "One of the top public concerns is the impact on the landscape," said Tom. “I thought it would look like Texas with those nodding steel donkeys everywhere, but you can't tell from the largest shale gas area in America. You can't see or hear anything there. It just hisses to itself like a bottle of champagne. The fact is that the drilling takes three weeks and the fracking takes a week, there is a lot going on at the site, but after that the drilling will provide you with 20 to 50 years of natural gas. "Great Britain is currently the only country in the EU seriously considering fracking. Gary Haywood, who leads the INEOS shale gas project team, said the UK government has recognized that shale gas has the potential to help the UK achieve greater energy security, growth and jobs. “Citizens want affordable and reliable energy,” said Gary. "Around 85 percent of British households heat or cook with natural gas. Our domestic UK reserves have dwindled to less than 50 percent of demand. We have a clean British shale energy resource that can be tapped. This can bring a number of benefits to the country. INEOS is keen to be part of this development. We will look for sensitive ways to develop shale gas for the company and the country. "There are currently more than 176 Oil Development Development Licenses (PEDL) for onshore oil and gas production in the UK. Further licenses were granted this year. Incentives are being offered to communities and landowners to allow businesses to drill, but INEOS says it doesn't go far enough. "We believe that communities should benefit when natural gas is extracted on their property," said Tom. “The £ 100,000 offer isn't enough to make people think it's a good idea. As a result, we announced plans to give 6 percent of our shale gas revenues to homeowners, landowners and communities near our wells. We expect to pay out more than £ 2.5 billion from our shale gas business. "Opposition to fracking in the UK has increased since the protests in Balcombe, West Sussex, last year. "The drilling in Balcombe provoked some emotional responses," said Tom. “But the problem is that citizens are generally not well informed about shale gas extraction. The anti-lobby has fueled irrational fears of this technology, especially through misleading propaganda. "Tom and his team are determined to change that. “We made a short film that shows the citizens the real facts about shale gas production. We want the public to hear the real story, ”he said. Tom said the film debunks some of the myths about the impact of shale gas production and therefore highlights the important benefits this industry can bring to the UK. "It is important that the citizens know all the facts so that they can make a decision with full knowledge of the facts," continued Tom. “The industry can create many much-needed jobs. Energy security can be guaranteed for UK citizens by promoting a clean fuel that produces half the greenhouse gas emissions compared to coal. “Another unknown factor is how continental Europe will respond. "I'm not sure how long this issue can be ignored there," said Tom. “Some believe that the US has already run out of powder and will run out of gas in a few years. But that's not true. We have met companies in the United States that have so far been drilling less than 10 percent of their land. Shale gas production in the United States is a long-term industry and is a long-term resource. Not everything can be solved with renewable energies. Natural gas is the perfect complement to renewable energies because alternatives are necessary. If the wind doesn't blow, the refrigerator has to keep running. "INEOS '15-year contracts with the US for ethane imports serve as an interim solution, while Europe is still grappling with a decision." That gives us time, "says Tom." This is an interim solution for the next 15 years, until when we will hopefully have a local shale gas production facility that will give us the ethane. "Hydrolic Manufac Vid

Shale gas is fueling investment in the US and is not stalling. Shale gas-related investments in the US exceed $ 100 billion, according to the American Chemicals Association ACC. INEOS is one of those who invest. INEOS has built one of the largest ethane crackers in the world to take advantage of the inexpensive shale gas in the United States. INEOS has invested US $ 115 million in a new blast furnace on Texas’s Chocolate Bayou industrial estate, covering approximately 970 acres, to produce inexpensive ethylene used by industries in the production of soaps, paints, clothing, plastic bottles and cosmetics. "This means that we don't lose capacity every time we have to shut down one of the other six blast furnaces for cleaning purposes," said Dennis Seith, CEO of INEOS Olefins & amp; Polymers USA. "This in turn improves our overall reliability." INEOS now operates the second largest ethylene facility in the US, the fifth largest in the world. Thanks to the most modern technology, the new blast furnace is not that harmful to the environment. “There are fewer emissions per ton in ethylene production. This means that the best possible industrial technology for emissions controls is used in industry today, ”says Dennis. INEOS began planning the furnace in mid-2011. Construction began in April of this year, 28 months after the first construction contract with KBR was signed. The project consumed more than 564,000 hours of work by construction workers, which corresponds to 60 years. During this time, almost 13 kilometers of pipes and 42 kilometers of electrical power and equipment cables were laid. "It was an excellent result and one that could safely be implemented," said Dennis. "This will secure the future of our site for the next generation." According to the American Chemicals Association ACC, investments associated with shale gas now exceed USD 100 billion. In February of this year, 148 projects including new factories, expansion and process changes were announced. "This is a historic milestone for US chemistry and proof that shale gas is a powerful driver of industrial production growth," said ACC President and CEO Cal Dooley. “The shale gas boom has made the USA the world's most attractive investment location for investments in the chemical and plastics industries. It has increased tremendously competitiveness. "INEOS’s new blast furnace will generate an additional $ 55 million in profit every year. "This is all part of our plans to increase capacity to utilize US shale gas-derived ethane, and is in line with our long-term strategy of achieving cost regression and increasing our ability to utilize inexpensive ethane as a feedstock from shale gas," says Dennis. But that's not all the good news about US investing. In August, INEOS and Sasol jointly agreed to build a new plant to produce 470,000 tons of high density polyethylene per year in LaPorte, Texas. This system will be built on the INEOS Battleground site and should be in production by 2016. "This investment will enable INEOS to meet the needs of its customers to manufacture additional bimodal products," said Dennis. "This also supports INEOS 'strategy of investing and leveraging synergies at our key locations." The 50:50 joint venture, which was originally discussed by both companies in July 2013, will use the Innovene ™ S manufacturing technology that licensed from INEOS Technologies. The ethylene necessary for the production of high density polyethylene is supplied proportionally to their respective owners by INEOS and Sasol. "This project will expand Sasol's presence in the global chemicals market and complement our North American growth strategy," said Fleetwood Grobler, Sasol's managing director for Global Chemicals. "This location offers several advantages, including access to US Gulf Coast infrastructure and proximity to our future ethane crackers and derivatives site in southwest Louisiana." Access to huge new American natural gas deposits in shale is one of the most exciting national energy projects in decades, especially for the petrochemical industry. According to the International Energy Agency, the USA will be self-sufficient in natural gas production from 2015 and oil production from 2035. In May of this year, US CO2 emissions also hit their lowest level in 20 years, according to Energy in Depth.

The UK has never been more dependent on foreign gas and coal imports than it was last year. This dependency will only increase. According to Centrica, the parent company of British Gas, the UK is expected to import 70 percent of the natural gas it needs by 2020. For energy-hungry companies like INEOS with factories in the country, this is a serious problem and can no longer be ignored. & Nbsp; INEOS plans to invest millions to build more underground gas storage facilities in the UK. & Nbsp; This decision, made by INEOS earlier this year, comes at a time when the UK is concerned about rising energy costs, the country's energy security and growing national reliance on foreign exports. The gas stored in Cheshire's Holford Brinefield underground cavities will do its part to keep the lights from going out in the UK and to keep industrial consumers like INEOS alive. The benefits for INEOS will be twofold. "Even without gas storage, cavities would be created as this would provide the brine that INEOS needs at both of its Runcorn locations," said Richard Stevenson, project manager at INEOS Enterprises. "The proposed project would simply use the salt cavities when all the brine has been removed." & Nbsp; Controlled solution has been practiced at Holeford Brinefield since the 1920s. Since that time, more than 200 cavities have been safely dug by mining INEOS and its predecessor company. & Nbsp; INEOS ChlorVinyls uses concentrated saline solution to produce chlorine, ensuring the safety of much of the UK's drinking water. INEOS Enterprises' salt division also uses the solution to produce table salt, water softeners and road salt. Once planning permission is granted, this would be the third natural gas storage project at Holford Brinefield and an additional 19 storage cavities would be created. Today a considerable number of cavities are already being used for the production of brine, eleven are already operational for gas storage and another 18 are being created for this purpose. The importance of gas storage in Great Britain should not be underestimated. Recently the Panel on Energy and Climate Change called on the UK government to double gas storage spaces by 2020. Therefore, the project proposed for Holford was classified as a nationally significant infrastructure project. This means that - unlike most building permit applications - this is not decided by the local authority. Instead, it requires approval from Ed Davey, the current Minister for Energy and Climate Change. INEOS and Keuper Gas Storage Limited, a subsidiary owned by INEOS Enterprises Group Limited, is due to apply for such approval early next year. It is hoped that Davey will make a decision in 2016 so that construction can begin the following year. INEOS can then assume that it will be able to store natural gas in the specially constructed underground cavities from 2020 onwards. "This is an important proposal for the security of energy supply in the UK and would be extremely important for investment and employment in Cheshire," said INEOS Enterprises Group Limited. "It is also an important investment that cannot be made without government subsidies." In March this year, Centrica, the parent company of British Gas, warned that the UK would import up to 70 percent of its natural gas by 2020. & nbsp; Managing Director Sam Laidlaw said Britain's security of energy supply would be jeopardized to become a “forgotten priority” of European energy policy. "In Great Britain, an estimated 3.7 gigawatts of generation capacity will be shut down by hard coal-fired power plants due to the EU directives on emissions protection," he said. & Nbsp; “The reserve capacity should decrease by 4 percent, which increases the likelihood of power outages. However, no new capacities will be created. UK gas production is declining rapidly. North Sea oil and natural gas production has decreased by 38 percent over the past three years. By 2020 we will have to rely on imports in order to be able to meet 70 percent of gas demand. So when it comes to security of supply, we urgently need solutions. "For a company like INEOS, which uses as much energy to run its Runcorn plants as the city of Liverpool, this is not something that can be easily dismissed. Rather, it is a high priority. & Nbsp; In 2004 Great Britain became a net energy importer. In 2010 28 percent of the demand was imported.Last year that figure rose to 47 percent, with exports reaching their lowest level since 1980. & nbsp; The successful development of this project, along with the two previous INEOS-supported Cheshire gas projects, would have a combined capacity to supply 40 percent of the UK's daily gas storage capacity. "If there was a major shortage of supplies in the UK, the gas stored at INEOS Enterprises in Brinefield, including this project, could help keep the lights on in the UK for nearly two weeks," said Richard. Gas from the national grid would be stored in the cavities when demand is low, usually in the warm summer months. If demand rises, it would flow back into the UK's national transmission network. & Nbsp; Cheshire is one of the few places in the UK where geological conditions allow gas to be safely stored underground. The salt layer there is impermeable, which means that no gas can flow through it. & Nbsp; More information at www.kgsp.co.uk

The discovery of the Higgs boson particle, a fundamental elementary particle, made physicists as famous as rock stars for a day. It was extremely difficult, but a generation of physicists was so convinced that this particle had to exist that they persuaded 40 countries around the world to build the most complicated apparatus ever to prove this theory. But how do we feel about it? Did we really care? Should we be interested? Why is this discovery so important? INCH went to the CERN accelerator center, near INEOS headquarters, and listened to what some of the scientists involved in the experiment had to say. IT was one of the greatest scientific discoveries of all time. Many physicists, whose careers had been primarily devoted to the search for the elusive Higgs boson particle, thought they would never experience it themselves. But the average person and child are probably still wondering why the discovery of the Higgs boson particle is important to them and whether it was worth spending 7.5 billion euros for its discovery, especially in the middle of a global economic crisis, to spend on it. This is a question that Ainissa Ramirez, former associate professor of mechanical engineering and materials science at Yale University in America, can understand. "This discovery is as important as Copernicus," she said. “But people are not interested in the details of the Higgs boson. At least not yet. They want to know why it is important and how it changes the course of human history. “One thing is certain: it will shape our world. We just don't know exactly how yet. "I cannot promise that the invention of the Higgs particle will lead to a new type of Teflon pan or other concrete changes in everyday life," said Professor Dave Charlton, scientific director of the ATLAS experiment at CERN, which was used to discover the particle . "Probably not. But I hope the average person can understand the common goal of many people who want to better understand how things work. Pushing boundaries to understand the building blocks of our universe is certainly a cultural and scientific must." Professor Charlton, who is also Professor of Particle Physics at the University of Birmingham, UK, said it was difficult to reconcile the Higgs particle discovery with previous historical ones Compare discoveries such as radioactivity or the structure of the genetic material. "It's just too early," he said . "It can take decades or even longer to understand how such new physics can lead to new technologies. We cannot yet estimate what the next scientific steps will be. But we have just come a very big step further by discovering what gives particles their mass . ”So that the Higgs boson particle could be discovered, the elementary particle that gives everything we see its mass and the discoverer the most coveted prize for physics, scientis ts had to recreate the conditions that prevailed less than a billionth of a second after the Big Bang 13.7 billion years ago. To do this, they had to build the most complicated experimental apparatus in history. For more than 15 years, more than 10,000 scientists from 40 countries invested their time and expertise to build a particle accelerator in a nearly circular 27-kilometer tunnel 100 meters underground near Geneva, Switzerland. Professor Sir Jim Virdee of London's Imperial College noted that some of the technologies did not exist when they began to construct the Large Particle Accelerator (LHC), which would accelerate subatomic particles to almost the speed of light and then smash them. But the July 2012 discovery of the Higgs boson particle, which was confirmed in March 2013, finally showed the world what theoretical physicists Peter Higgs, Robert Brout, and François Englert had predicted nearly fifty years earlier. In the future, it may answer fundamental questions about the origin of the universe and perhaps, more importantly, its future. "We have solved a difficult and lengthy puzzle," said Professor Charlton. “But the discovery raised more questions than it answered. Some of these questions are not new, but the discovery made us realize the real issue. It is no longer just a matter of purely hypothetical problems. "When the electron was discovered in 1897, according to Ms. Ramirez, no one knew what the practical use was either. "What is very clear today is that we cannot live without electrons because they are present in all electronic devices." CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, was founded in 1954. Their mission was - and still is - to push the limits of technology, to find answers to questions about the universe, to bring nations together with science and to train scientists and engineers of the future. “Understanding our environment has been a fundamental human interest since ancient times,” says Professor Charlton. "At CERN, everyone works together, regardless of nationality, gender, religion or other differences, because we want to get all the answers to these fundamental questions." Over the years, thousands of scientists and physicists have come here hand pressed. When the LHC went into operation in September 2008 with worldwide attention, scientists ventured into unknown territory. The machine in their midst was able to generate enough data to fill 100,000 CDs every second. The challenge would be to filter this data to find the only Standard Model particle that had never been seen. Every second there were around 800 million frontal collisions at almost the speed of light. If scientists had collected all the data, it would have been like making 50 billion phone calls at the same time or listening to music for 600 years. “Only a fraction of these collisions were of interest to us, so we had to limit ourselves very quickly to the most interesting processes,” says Professor Charlton. Initially there were some problems. Thirty-six hours after the LHC went into operation, it had to be turned off again because there was a defective electrical cable between two magnets that had melted due to the high electrical resistance flowing through it. The LHC was finally restarted in November 2009 after being repaired and a new safety system installed. Our life without the Higgs boson particle would have been different. Particles would have continued to fly through the universe without ever clumping to form something new. “It's amazing that we only understand a fraction of what the universe is,” said Professor Charlton. "The next data we collect at the LHC could give us a glimpse into the dark universe (dark matter) that we don't understand." The LHC was shut down in February of last year because it needs a major overhaul. When it is put back into operation in January, the scientists can only guess what to expect. But it is clear to all of them that this is just the beginning. “There are still a lot of unsolved puzzles out there,” said Professor Charlton. “Now we know, however, that empty space is not what we thought it would be. Empty space contains something, an invisible Higgs field, where there are interactions with all particles. The discovery of the Higgs boson particle is a huge step forward when it comes to understanding the deepest structures of nature. "As a professor of particle physics who thoroughly studies the basic structures of matter and forces, he believes that nothing can be ruled out. "All scientific problems can be tackled," he says. “Sometimes it might take years or decades to resolve, but you should be able to find answers to how things work. Understanding every new puzzle takes time and energy and people and money. "In the meantime, at CERN, as a large international laboratory, they have decided to do something even bigger. A new underground apparatus is to be built that would be four times the size of the large particle accelerator. The one hundred kilometer long tunnel that would surround the whole of Geneva would have energy values ​​that have never been seen before.

The key technologies developed at CERN over the last 60 years have penetrated the outside world - and benefit society. & Nbsp; So far we have to thank the European Organization for Nuclear Research for giving the world more powerful solar panels, the internet, touch screen technology and medical imaging, to name a few examples. “The common driving force for knowledge pushes us again and again to search for innovative technologies, to develop that are useful for us and for others,” says Professor Dave Charlton. One would assume that CERN would have repeatedly benefited financially from patenting such inventions. But that's not the case due to the collaborative working model. As one of the first pan-European joint ventures, its member states pump many millions of euros into the organization every year so that new technologies can be developed, which means that they do not want to pay for the use of these inventions in their own countries. & Nbsp; In the past, CERN simply published details of its inventions just as one published scientific discoveries. In other words, they were made available to the general public. But in 2010 CERN signed an agreement with the United Nations World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) to ensure that it could benefit from the technical inventions of its engineers. "Basic research is the driving force behind innovation," says CERN Director General Rolf Heuer. “It is therefore vital for organizations like CERN to ensure that their expertise and technologies fall on fertile ground for development. The agreement with WIPO will motivate both organizations to try out joint ventures that other international organizations may also be able to participate in. "& Nbsp; Because CERN has many success stories that we are proud of. Here are just a few of them. INTERNET INITIAL research at CERN brought us the Internet. Tim Berners-Lee, one of the computer scientists there, wrote and distributed a hypertext system project in 1989 so that employees had access to reports, notes and databases. A subsequent report was published in 1993. CERN recently celebrated the twentieth anniversary when the Internet broadcast software was made available to the public by restoring the first website to its original Internet address: http: // info.cern.ch/hypertext/WWW/TheProject.html TOUCH-SCREEN - TECHNOLOGY For a long time, the invention of touch screen technology was attributed to APPLE with the iPhone, but the company was only responsible for one innovation of the same. In reality, it was the engineers Ben t Stumpe and Frank Beck who developed the first transparent touch screen that responded to certain objects such as an input pen in the early 1970s. This technique was manufactured by CERN and used from 1973. SOLAR CELLS The vacuum technology for particle accelerators developed at CERN is now being used to manufacture a new generation of solar collectors with excellent insulating properties. Its inventor, Crisoforo Benvenuti, said that temperatures of 80 degrees Celsius were recorded inside the collectors, even when they were covered with snow. EMAIL ENCRYPTION In May of this year, three young engineers, inspired by their CERN experience, launched ProtonMail, a secure email service with a sophisticated encryption system to ward off potential spies. The company idea arose in a CERN canteen, where physicists and engineers meet regularly to exchange ideas over coffee. POSITRON EMISSION STOMOGRAPHY (PET) CERN developed bismuth germanate and transparent lead tungstate crystals for its detectors. Today, both types of crystals are used in PET tomographs, which are used in cancer screening. The PET tomograph creates three-dimensional images of the inside of the body that can show how much carcinomas have spread and how well they respond to treatment. In addition, accelerator technology, for which CERN is a leading research laboratory, is increasingly being used for medical purposes, such as cancer treatment through hadron therapy, which enables a highly localized dose of radiation to be aimed at a tumor more precisely than previously possible .

We live in a world in which technology is developing at a rapid pace. But who is behind it? The military or the economy? The world owes some of the most exciting technological developments in history to the military. Necessity certainly made inventive in the course of the 20th century. In times of war you needed the best, you could concentrate on your tasks, break new ground in science and encourage you to be faster and smarter than the enemy. Computers, thermal cameras, radar, GPS, jet engines, carbon fiber and drone systems were all developed for the military before they were used in everyday civilian life. But the dynamic has changed a bit here. "In the past, defense and aerospace have been the main drivers of innovation," said Neil Stansfi eld, Head of Knowledge, Innovation and Future Development at the UK Government Laboratory for Military Science and Technology. & Nbsp; "But nowadays innovation comes from a lot more different industries and has commercial drivers." However, one should not underestimate the military's need for innovation, as access to new technology can mean a competitive advantage that is literally a matter of life or death goes. & nbsp; "In some niche areas, the military will always be the driver of innovation and deploy it early," said Neil. & Nbsp; It's only been two months since the US Flagship Defense Agency announced their latest invention: hand-held, gecko-like shovels that people can use to climb vertical glass walls like Spiderman. & Nbsp; With the help of this new technique, a man weighing almost 100 kilograms - and a load of almost 23 kilograms - climbed an almost eight meter high vertical glass wall without ropes or hooks. In the project called Z-Man Project, scientists oriented themselves towards nature, namely the gecko, so that soldiers can move around in built-up war zones without the need for ropes or ladders. "The gecko is one of the best climbers in the animal kingdom, so it was only natural for us to take inspiration from it when it came to facing some of the challenges US forces face when maneuvering in an urban setting." , says Dr. Matt Goodman, the DARPA program manager for Z-Man. Not only this, but also the artificial, reversible adhesives that DARPA created with the help of nanotechnology could one day become useful in everyday life. No matter what role the military will ultimately play in the future, it should never detract from the importance of its role in the past. The Global Positioning System, better known as GPS, was invented by the US Air Force in the mid-1970s to guide missiles. Today, most of us, including pilots, sailors and fishermen, use this space-age technique to avoid getting lost. Many cell phones and modern cars are also equipped with satellite navigation systems, which means that people can know exactly where they are in the world at any given time. “All smartphones now have maps and location services as standard equipment,” said Ben Taylor, director of corporate communications at Vodafone UK. "According to Ofcom, the British telecommunications regulator, more than half of adults in Great Britain now have a smartphone." The first thermal imaging camera was developed by AGA in 1958 for the Swedish military. The camera's ability to produce a clear image in total darkness and through smoke became a valuable tool in combat areas. Today, thermal imaging cameras help police track suspects in the dark, sailors navigate the night, fire fighters search for survivors in smoke-filled buildings, and rescue teams locate earthquake victims under tons of rubble. & Nbsp; According to FLIR Systems, the world's leading company in thermal imaging cameras, they are also often used to detect gas leaks or to examine buildings for signs of poor insulation and moisture. & Nbsp; The first electronic digital calculator was designed by technicians for the US military during World War II to help them calculate artillery fire ranges. When ENIAC, as it was called, was finally demonstrated on February 15, 1946 in the Penn’s Moore Building in Philadelphia, it was hailed as a "giant brain" by the press. It had cost nearly $ 500,000, but this revolutionary device, as we all know by now, was earth-shattering. & Nbsp; "Without ENIAC, there would be no Google, Microsoft or many of the things that drive today's global economy," said Bill Green, former Democratic Party councilor in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania City Council. & Nbsp; Another technology developed by the military is radar, which was developed by several nations before and during World War II and was increasingly used in the UK as an early warning system to detect incoming enemy aircraft. & Nbsp; Today, radar is used to predict the weather, to help airplanes fly and land safely, and by the police, who use it to flash drivers when speeding is exceeded. & Nbsp; The British engineer Sir Robert Watson-Watt, who was instrumental in the development of the radar, is said to have been flashed in the 1950s by a police officer with a radar pistol in Canada during a speeding violation. When the police officer asked him about it, he is said to have replied: "If I had known what you were doing with it, I would never have made it up." & Nbsp; The first microwave oven was also created using radar technology. During an experiment with magnetrons at his Raytheon laboratory in Massachusetts, scientist Percy Spencer discovered that the radar sensors had melted a candy bar in his pocket. He was surprised and asked his assistant to get him a bag of popcorn, spread the popcorn on the table near the magnetrons, and waited. In less than a minute, the cores began to explode. & Nbsp; Drones, which were first developed for target practice in the 1930s for the military and are now increasingly used for surveillance and bombing missions, are also becoming increasingly popular in the commercial sector. Civil airspace is expected to be open to all types of drones by 2015 in the US and by 2016 in Europe. The U.S.Civil Aviation Association expects 30,000 civil and commercial unmanned aircraft to be circling the skies by 2030. "I definitely saw the use of military technology in a commercial setting when I was serving in the British Air Force," said Mark Sickling, who drives reconnaissance and armed drones over Afghanistan and Iraq from a Las control station Vegas steered. & Nbsp; He's now the chief pilot at Cyberhawk, which uses remote-controlled aircraft to check everything from hot flares at INEOS and Petroineos sites to wind turbines and offshore oil and gas installations. Mark went on to say that much of the commercial tech is now being used by the military as military budgets shrink. & Nbsp; One commercial company that does its own extensive research into the use of unmanned drones is Amazon, the world's largest online retailer. & Nbsp; Last year Amazon announced that it was about to test “Octocopters” to send packages up to 2.3 kilograms to customers within 30 minutes of ordering. & Nbsp; "I know this sounds like science fiction, but it's not," said Jeff Bezos, chairman of the board. “I don't want people to believe that it will be possible tomorrow. It will have to be worked on for years. But it will work. It will come to that. It's going to be very fun. "Craig Roberts, CEO of Cyberhawk, isn't quite as optimistic as Jeff at Amazon. & Nbsp; “It's a nice idea,” he said. "But right now it is science fiction because it is not possible to fly safely within the existing restrictions imposed by the UK Civil Aviation Authority." & Nbsp; In Great Britain, for example, unmanned aircraft are not allowed to fly more than 150 meters or within 50 meters of a built-up area or a road and drivers must be able to see the aircraft at all times. & Nbsp; "Amazon's idea is a long way off," continues Craig. & Nbsp;

Successful innovation begins when someone discovers a gap in the market. Chemical engineer Malcolm Connolly hangs on the end of a rope. For ten years he worked at great heights, conducting inspections of petroleum and natural gas facilities in the North Sea, often hundreds of meters in the air and in difficult and dangerous conditions. "He thought it had to be easier," said Craig Roberts, who is now CEO of the company Malcolm founded. & Nbsp; It was easier. Malcolm and his team at Cyberhawk were instrumental in developing a fleet of remotely controlled aircraft that can operate in winds of 45 km / h and at high ambient temperatures to investigate flares under operating conditions. It found that it could do a week's workload in one afternoon. On one such job at an offshore gas drilling and production platform in Southeast Asia saved more than USD 2 million, eliminating the need for people to work at great heights, which also significantly improved occupational safety. "Before that, you would have had to shut down the facility for seven days to have enough time for a rope crew to get to the flare and examine it." Today, Cyberhawk, which uses remote-controlled aircraft, has everything from flare heads to tall chimneys, Exhaust ducts and pipe supports to inspect the lower deck of offshore oil and gas facilities through an impressive list of clients including Shell, BP, Exxonmobil, Total and INEOS and has worked with many of the largest energy companies in Europe, the Middle East and Asia. & Nbsp; While there is public debate about whether it is morally acceptable to use drones to bomb attacks, Cyberhawk prides itself on being a pioneer in keeping people out of harm's way. Video When Cyberhawk agreed to investigate a flare at INEOS 'onshore facility in Grangemouth in 2010, it was a journey into the unknown. Nobody had tried to fly an unmanned aircraft just a few feet from a flare head before. After several onshore flaring inspections, Cyberhawk carried out what was probably the first offshore inspection in the North Sea on behalf of ConocoPhillips in 2011. & nbsp; And in 2012 it was the first company to study an offshore wind turbine off the UK coast. "As an industry leader, however, we had to set up our own training and research and development center," said Craig. "We think you have to invest in research and development if you want your business to grow dynamically." INEOS initially hired Cyberhawk to inspect its flares and chimneys at the Grangemouth factory in Scotland. "In the past, INEOS would have had to shut down the flare, with the associated loss of production, maybe build scaffolding around the flare head and then send a technician to the top of the chimney," said Craig. "Now production can continue while we inspect the flare and there is no need for people to work at such great heights or in dangerous areas." The remote-controlled aircraft enables high-resolution video, photo and thermal images to be recorded making it possible to detect anomalies. And thermal imaging helps detect potential problems such as "burn back" if the gases ignite inside the flare. "We can see what a person would see if they were to examine a decommissioned flare, but because we are examining the flares under operating conditions, we can also get thermal images," he said. "We can also examine all flares, whereas one person would only consider certain points." After completing the job, the results are discussed immediately on site. Each aircraft is battery-operated, has eight propellers and can be equipped with a digital photo camera, HD video recorder, gas sensor and thermal imaging camera. Even with all of these devices on board, it still weighs less than two kilograms. "To show how light and small our aircraft are, we often compare them to a large seagull, at least when we speak to customers who operate in the North Sea," said Craig. Accidents do happen. But not with us. & Nbsp; In April of this year, a UK retailer became the first to be prosecuted by the UK Aviation Administration for dangerously flying a small unmanned surveillance aircraft within 50 meters of Jubilee Bridge on the Walney Canal in Cumbria, Northern England. "It can be a problem because it's easy to buy hobby accessories and have them flown in a public area without understanding how to operate a remote-controlled aircraft safely," said Craig. "That cannot be compared at all with the work of Cyberhawk." The pilots of Cyberhawk are trained at the highest possible level and trained to expect the unexpected. To qualify as an offshore pilot, Cyberhawk employees must complete four levels of internal training and receive certification above the level of basic training required by the Civil Aviation Authority. Your services have proven extremely valuable. & Nbsp; “Because we are able to easily monitor a problem, companies can avoid unplanned shutdowns even when there is a problem and stick to their planned shutdown program,” continues Craig. The inspection of flares, however, is only part of the Cyberhawk success story. The company has also used its remote-controlled aircraft to monitor the progress of construction of a whiskey bottling facility, survey a reopened open pit mine, examine meteorological masts at sea and monitor a herd of seals without affecting their natural environment. INEOS has also used Cyberhawk to film locations in short films to educate affected communities.