Can ethanol form a hydrogen bond with water

Elements and molecules, school book

272 THEME AREAS SELF-TEST Solutions: 1: c - 2: b, d - 3: a, b, d - 4: a, c - 5: a, b - 6: b, c - 7: b, c - 8: a, c, d. SeLBStteSt If you have worked through the material in the chapter well, you will certainly be able to answer the following questions quickly: 1 Tick if the general term monohydric, secondary alcohol applies to the following compounds: ■ a: Cyclohexane-1,2- diol ■ b: methanol ■ c: pent-4-en-2-ol ■ d: methylpropan-2-ol 2 crosses applicable statements about alcohols on: ■ Alcohols have a hydrophilic area and are therefore always water-soluble. ■ The polar OH group of alcohols is the reason for the formation of hydrogen bonds. ■ The boiling points of alcohols are lower than those of the associated hydrocarbons. ■ The boiling points of monohydric alcohols are lower than those of polyhydric alcohols. 3 Which of the alcohols mentioned can be oxidized while retaining their carbon structure? ■ a: Cyclohexanol ■ b: 2,2-Dimethylpentan-1-ol ■ c: Methylpropan-2-ol ■ d: Hex-4-en-2-ol 4 Ethanol can be produced by alcoholic fermentation. This is a process that is catalyzed by enzymes in yeast cells. ■ which, under optimal conditions, can deliver a maximum alcohol content of 96%. ■ which has carbohydrates as starting materials. 5 Phenols ■ are compounds that have the alcohol function attached directly to the benzene ring. ■ form blue-violet complexes with iron (III) ions. ■ Show a weaker acid behavior than aliphatic alcohols. 6 Carbonyl compounds (both aldehydes and ketones) can ■ form hydrogen bonds with one another. ■ form hydrogen bonds with water. ■ split off the α proton under the action of strong bases. ■ split off the α proton under the action of strong acids. 7 Tick where applicable: ■ The end product of an aldol addition is an acetal. ■ The end product of an aldol condensation is an α, b-unsaturated carbonyl compound. ■ The reduction of a ketone leads to a secondary alcohol. ■ The reduction of an aldehyde leads to a tertiary alcohol. 8 Tick which of the named carboxylic acid derivatives are more reactive than the carboxylic acid itself: ■ a: Carboxylic acid ester ■ b: Salt of the carboxylic acid ■ c: Carboxylic acid chloride ■ d: Carboxylic acid anhydride THEME AREAS - networked contents and terms The contents and key words of the following topics can be used as a basis for Answers to examination questions and presentations from chemistry can be used. 1 The alcohols and their oxidation products Behavior of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols towards oxidizing agents. Oxidation numbers of the functional groups. Nomenclature of alcohols and their oxidation products. 2 Condensation reactions with alcohols Condensation from one alcohol molecule, from two alcohol molecules and between alcohols and carboxylic acids or oxygen acids. Name and properties of the condensation products. 3 Esters Production of esters, significance of this class of compounds in nature and technology - flavorings, edible fats, polyesters, tensides. 4 Carboxylic acids Acid strength of carboxylic acids, reactions of carboxylic acids, activation to acid anhydrides and acid chlorides. Examples of carboxylic acids, dicarboxylic acids, hydroxy and oxocarboxylic acids. 5 Hydrogen Bridges and the Properties of Organic Oxygen Compounds Boiling points and water solubility of mono- and polyhydric alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and esters and the justification of the properties with the hydrogen bond model. 6 Chiral compounds Optical isomerism, Fischer projection, pair of enantiomers, diastereomers, racemate, meso form. Explanation of the terms clockwise / anticlockwise, D / L, R / S. Visualization of the designs with molecular models (ball-rod models, spherical models). 9 ORGANIC OXYGEN COMPOUNDS For testing purposes only - property of the publisher öbv

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