Attta fish attack snails

Parasitism and symbiosis

General Physiology pp 628-692 | Cite as

Part of the Handbuch der Normalen und Pathologische Physiologie book series (2664, volume 1)


If the previous chapter deals with the development of the individual in terms of growth and function, the discussion of parasitism and symbiosis leads us to consider the relationships between the individual living being and its environment. It is a well-known fact that the structure and function of the individual biont depends not only on the self-determination powers inherent in him, but also largely on the influence of his environment, the “Müieu”. Only if its efficiency meets the demands made by the environment, if it is "adapted" to its mowing, can it hold its own in the long run. - The impact of the environment is on the one hand of a general nature: chemical and physical properties of the soil, Khma, temperature and salinity of the water in marine animals have a characteristic shaping effect on living beings. At least as important, however, are the relationships with the living Ghedern des Müieu. Every living being is shaped into a "biocenosis", i. H. it is connected to the other bionts, who share the same habitat, by a set of extremely varied and intricate relationships. For both plants and animals, food acquisition and reproduction are largely dependent on the support, opposition and competition of the surrounding bionts. Parasitism and symbiosis can now perhaps best and most generally be defined as the specialized adaptation of individual animals or plants to one or a few living members of their biocoenosis, by exploiting them to their own

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This chapter is part of the Springer Book Archives digitization project with publications that have appeared since the publisher's beginnings in 1842. With this archive, the publisher provides sources for both historical and disciplinary research, which must be viewed in a historical context. This chapter is from a book that was published before 1945 and is therefore not advertised by the publisher in its political-ideological orientation typical of the time.

Summarizing presentations

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© Julius Springer in Berlin 1927

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