What makes people believe in conspiracies

Belief in Conspiracy Theories: On the Role of Country Contexts and the Peculiarity of Conspiracy Theory

Quoted and further reading

Ballová Mikušková, E. (2017). Conspiracy beliefs of future teachers. Current Psychology, 37, 692-701. doi: 10.1007 / s12144-017-9561-4

Brotherton, R., & French, C. C. (2014). Belief in conspiracy theories and susceptibility to the conjunction fallacy. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 28, 238-248. doi: 10.1002 / acp.2995

Brotherton, R., French, C. C., & Pickering, A.D. (2013). Measuring belief in conspiracy theories: The generic conspiracist beliefs scale. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 279. doi: 10.3389 / fpsyg.2013.00279

Bruder, M., Haffke, P., Neave, N., Nouripanah, N., & Imhoff, R. (2013). Measuring individual differences in generic beliefs in conspiracy theories across cultures: Conspiracy mentality questionnaire. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 225. doi: 10.3389 / fpsyg.2013.00225

Butter, M. (2014). Plots, Designs, and Schemes: American Conspiracy Theories from the Puritans to the Present. Berlin: de Gruyter.

Butter, M., & Knight, P. (2016). Bridging the great divide: Conspiracy theory and research for the 21st century. Diogenes, 1–13. doi: 10.1177 / 0392192116669289

Butter, M., & Reinkowski, M. (2014). Introduction: Mapping conspiracy theories in the United States and the Middle East. In M. Butter & M. Reinkowski (Eds.), Conspiracy theories in the United States and the Middle East. A comparative approach (pp. 1–32). Berlin / Boston: De Gruyter.

Cheung, G. W., & Rensvold, R. B. (2009). Evaluating goodness-of-fit indexes for testing measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 9 (2), 233-255. doi: 10.1207 / S15328007SEM0902_5

Cichocka, A., Marchlewska, M., & de Zavala, A. G. (2016). Does self-love or self-hate predict conspiracy beliefs? Narcissism, self-esteem, and the endorsement of conspiracy theories. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 7 (2), 157-166. doi: 10.1177 / 1948550615616170

Dagnall, N., Denovan, A., Drinkwater, K., Parker, A., & Clough, P. (2017). Statistical bias and endorsement of conspiracy theories. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 31 (4), 368-378. doi: 10.1002 / acp.3331

Darwin, H., Neave, N., & Holmes, J. (2011). Belief in conspiracy theories. The role of paranormal belief, paranoid ideation and schizotypy. Personality and Individual Differences, 50 (8), 1289-1293. doi: 10.1016 / j.paid.2011.02.027
Genna, G. J. (2017). Images of Europeans: Transnational trust and support for European integration. Journal of International Relations and Development, 20 (2), 358-380. doi: 10.1057 / jird.2015.9

Goreis, A., & Voracek, M. (2019). A systematic review and meta-analysis of psychological research on conspiracy beliefs: Field characteristics, measurement instruments, and associations with personality traits. Frontiers in Psychology, 10 (205), 1-13. doi: 10.3389 / fpsyg.2019.00205

Grzesiak-Feldman, M. (2013). The effect of high-anxiety situations on conspiracy thinking. Current Psychology, 32 (1), 100-118. doi: 10.1007 / s12144-013-9165-6

Huang, H. (2017). A war of (mis) information: The political effect of rumors and rumor rebuttals in an authoritarian country. British Journal of Political Science, 47 (2), 283-311. doi: 10.2139 / ssrn.2131538

Jamal, A., Keohane, R., Romney, D., & Tingley, D. (2015). Anti-Americanism or anti-interventionism in Arabic twitter discourses. Perspectives on Politics, 13 (1), 55-73. doi: 10.1017 / S1537592714003132

Johnson, T. (2011). Guilt by association: The link between states' influence and the legitimacy of intergovernmental organizations. Review of International Organizations, 6 (1), 57-84. doi: 10.1007 / s11558-010-9088-z

Kertzer, J. D., & Zeitzoff, T. (2017). A bottom-up theory of public opinion about foreign policy. American Journal of Political Science, 61 (3), 543-558. doi: 10.1111 / ajps.12314

Kumareswaran, D. J. (2014). The psychopathological foundations of conspiracy theorists. Wellington: Victoria University of Wellington.

Leiser, D., Duani, N., & Wagner-Egger, P. (2017). The conspiratorial style in lay economic thinking. PLoS ONE, 12 (3), 1-17. doi: 10.1371 / journal.pone.0171238

Oliver, J. E., & Wood, T. J. (2014). Conspiracy theories and the paranoid style (s) of mass opinion. American Journal of Political Science, 58 (4), 952-966. doi: 10.1111 / ajps.12084

Schlipphak, B., & Isani, M.A. (2018). Muslim attitudes towards the European Union. London: Routledge.

Shermer, M. (2011). The believing brain. Scientific American, 305 (1), 85. doi: 10.1038 / scientificamerican0711-85

Shermer, M. (2010). The conspiracy theory detector. Scientific American, 303 (6), 102. doi: 10.1038 / scientificamerican1210-102

Steiner, N. (2018). Attitudes towards the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership in the European Union: The treaty partner heuristic and issue attention. European Union Politics, 19 (2), 255-277. doi: 10.1177 / 1465116518755953

Stieger, S., Gumhalter, N., Tran, U. S., Voracek, M., & Swami, V. (2013). Girl in the cellar: A repeated cross-sectional investigation of belief in conspiracy theories about the kidnapping of Natascha Kampusch. Frontiers of Psychology, 4 (297), 1-8. doi: 10.3389 / fpsyg.2013.00297

Stojanova, A., & Halberstadt, J. (2019). The conspiracy mentality scale: Distinguishing between irrational and rational suspicion. Social Psychology, 50 (4), 215-232. doi: 10.1027 / 1864 9335 / a000381

Swami, V. (2012). Social psychological origins of conspiracy theories: The case of the Jewish conspiracy theory in Malaysia. Frontiers in Psychology, 3 (280), 1-9. doi: 10.3389 / fpsyg.2012.00280

Swami, V., Chamorro-Premuzic, T., & Furnham, A. (2010). Unanswered questions: A preliminary investigation of personality and individual difference predictors of 9/11 conspiracist beliefs. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 24 (6), 749-761. doi: 10.1002 / acp.1583

Swami, V., Furnham, A., Smyth, N., Weis, L., Lay, A., & Clow, A. (2016). Putting the stress on conspiracy theories: Examining associations between psychological stress, anxiety, and belief in conspiracy theories. Personality and Individual Differences, 99, 72-76. doi: 10.1016 / j.paid.2016.04.084

Uscinski, J.E. & Parent, J.M. (2014) American conspiracy theories. New York: Oxford University Press.

van der Linden, S. (2015). The conspiracy effect: Exposure to conspiracy theories (about global warming) decreases pro-social behavior and science acceptance. Personality and Individual Differences, 87, 171-173. doi: 10.1016 / j.paid.2015.07.045

van Prooijen, J. W., Krouwel, A. P. M., & Pollet, T. V. (2015). Political extremism predicts belief in conspiracy theories. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 6 (5), 570-578. doi: 10.1177 / 1948550614567356

van Prooijen, J. W. (2017). Why education predicts decreased belief in conspiracy theories. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 31 (1), 50-58. doi: 10.1002 / acp.3301

Wagner-Egger, P., & Bangerter, A. (2007). La veréité ailleurs: Corrélats de l'adhesion aux theories du complot [The truth lies elsewhere: Correlates adherence to conspiracy belief]. Revue Internationale de Psychologie Sociale, 20, 31–61.