How is convection useful

Convectors consist of horizontal heating pipes on which lamellas are drawn to enlarge the heat-emitting surface. In practice, oval pipes have prevailed due to the better flow behavior of the water and air.
The heating pipes with the fins are in one Manhole. The higher the shaft, the stronger the chimney effect and thus the heat dissipation. With prefabricated convectors, the shaft is made of sheet metal and is firmly connected to the heating pipes. The shaft can also be formed by a niche with a curtain wall. In rooms with underfloor heating and floor-to-ceiling windows, underfloor convectors are mainly used. Convectors give off the heat almost exclusively as warm air (convection).
The Underfloor installation of convectors with natural convection are covered with roll-up gratings and are suitable as sole room heating or just as Cold air shield in front of cold outside surfaces (outside wall + window, floor-level windows). These radiators can also be used in the low temperature range.
The Underground shafts are made of galvanized sheet steel. The necessary accessories must be used to mount the convectors in shafts provided by the customer.
If possible, the shaft should be installed along the entire length of the window front in order to achieve complete shielding from cold air. The maximum output of an underfloor convector is at a shaft depth of approx. 600 mm. For reasons of assembly and maintenance / cleaning, the shaft should not be made much deeper.
Source: Zehnder Heizkörper AG
Increasingly, residents or room users in buildings with a high proportion of glass area want one Room air conditioning. A needs-based supply of filtered, heated or cooled circulating air is z. B. possible with a Katherm HK (floor duct for heating or cooling). With an energy-efficient EC tangential fan With noise-optimized commutation electronics, a higher degree of efficiency is achieved, which leads to energy savings of up to 60% compared to conventional fans. Flow-optimized Roller wheels (Cross-flow fan) ensure smooth running and guarantee an optimal flow of air through the convector over its entire length. EC fans can also use intelligent, integrated Power electronics can be operated continuously in a low speed range as required and therefore energy-efficient. Low speeds have an effect in areas of application, such as B. offices, have a positive effect on the noise development, which is well below the hearing threshold or the usual measuring range. The Katherm HK is available with the KaControl control equipment integrated ex works. With the KaController room control unit, up to six devices can be operated independently in a group. The units can be converted into higher-level Automation systems such as KNX, Modbus or LON can be integrated. If the complete control is to be implemented on site, there is a control variant with a 0-10V fan control.

Often the Supply air one controlled home ventilation perceived as too cold, other users want the Heat rooms. The Katherm QL technology supplies rooms effectively and evenly warmth other Supply air. A. High performance convector so shields incoming cold air effective. Displacement air outlets provide for a Low-turbulence room ventilation and enable the supply of air via large air outlets in the floor. The exit speed and temperature can be kept very low.
Spring air want to be in Cooling mode fed to the source air unit at 2 to 4 K below room temperature and blown in at an air speed of well below 0.3 m / s. All supply lines can be accommodated in raised floors (from 140 mm installation height) or are brought from the floor below. The height of the system can be adapted to the floor structure.
The Air in- other Outlets are arranged so that the Warm air from a high-performance convector and also the colder air from the displacement air outlet in a controlled and targeted manner and thus for thermal comfort to care.
The treated cool air enters the room from the floor duct and spreads out as a stable layer in the floor area. For this "Cold air lake"The fresh air rises due to the natural thermal buoyancy mainly near heat sources such as people or electrical devices. The result is a low-turbulence exchange of air. The supply of pleasant, cooled air is ensured. The exit speeds and temperatures can be kept very low. At the same time Room air is passed through the convector and warmed up. The escaping warm air mixes with the cold air present on the window surface, preventing a drop in temperature at the window.

Convectors are suitable especially for the clad installation, because the fairing is part of the required lift shaft. A convector emits almost exclusively by convection. The buoyancy flow can be influenced by the formation of a buoyancy shaft above the convector. The effective lift shaft height is decisive for the amount of air that flows through the convector and thus for the heat output.
So that the convector can deliver its specified output, the lift shaft must be adjacent on all sides. Larger air gaps between the cold and warm air flow lead to reduced performance due to "false air".
In order to function optimally, convectors require sufficiently large openings for air inlet and outlet. The dimensions for the air inlet and outlet openings must be large enough, depending on the depth of the convector and the height of the cladding.
Low temperature convector
The Low temperature convector is a low temperature radiator with fan assistance and especially for use in low and low temperature heating systems, e.g. B. designed with heat pumps.
It has a copper / aluminum heat exchanger with corrugated fins. An energy-saving, low-noise EC motor with step switching for rapid heating supports the heat dissipation at low temperatures. The device can also be used for a condensate-free cooling operation.



Convector radiator
For the subsequent installation or if no underfloor convector can be installed, there is the Convector radiator. This is mainly used in front of large floor-level window areas, e.g. B. in showrooms or entrance halls.

Instead of a skirting board, copper pipes with attached aluminum lamellas (convectors) are installed on the wall of the room. These baseboard radiators mainly give off their heat upwards by convection. The wall is heated and releases the heat into the room as radiant heat.
If the Baseboard radiators is set correctly, the warm air cools down just before it reaches the ceiling so that it sinks again near the wall. As a result, there is no air circulation in the room and the effect of the Radiant heat comes into its own. The prerequisite for effective baseboard heating is that the walls are plastered as smoothly as possible. With this type of heating, I have implemented lime plasters, as they have a disinfecting effect and thus prevent the formation of mold. In addition, the lime plaster is permeable to water vapor and has a moisture and heat regulating effect.
On the heated wall surfaces are allowed no objects (Pictures, furniture), because the passing air would cause dust deposits and the effective heating surface would be reduced. Problems can also arise under window areas.
The best heating of a wall surface is achieved by the Hyped execution reached. A distinction is made here between the system with curtain wall cladding and the brick-clay hollow block system. The disadvantage of this design is the dustiness of the cavities and the air outlets on the ceilings of the rooms.
Since the heating strip heating is mainly installed on the exterior walls, the walls should be well insulated.
This system used to be using Forced throughput, Flap control and high system temperatures (90/70 ° C).
Nowadays the system can also be used with the correct technical design Low temperature systems (Condensing and heat pump systems).