Charter schools are allowed to teach religion

Charter School - Charter school

School that operates independently of the local public school system

A. Charter school is a school that receives state funding but operates independently of the established state school system in which it is located. It is independent in the sense that it operates on the basic principle of accountability autonomy, that it is exempt from the rules but is responsible for the results.

Public or private school

There is debate over whether charter schools should be labeled private schools or state schools. Proponents of the charter model claim they are public schools because they are open to all students and have no tuition fees, while critics cite the private operation of charter schools and loose regulations on public accountability and labor issues as arguments against the concept. It is also described as a form of public education controlled by parents and small constituencies. On the other hand, charter schools are often founded, operated and maintained by non-profit organizations.

By country

Australia

All Australian private schools have received federal government funding since the 1970s. Since then they have trained about 30% of the students. None of them are charter schools as they all have tuition fees.

The Government of Western Australia has been testing the Independent Public School (IPS) initiative since 2009. These public schools have greater autonomy and could be considered "charter" schools (although the term is not used in Australia).

Bulgaria

The first charter school in Bulgaria, 151 General Education School with interest-based profiles, was founded in Sofia, Bulgaria in 1990.

Canada

The Canadian province of Alberta passed laws in 1994 that allow charter schools. The first charter schools under the new legislation were established in 1995: the New Horizons Charter School, the Suzuki Charter School and the Center for Academic and Personal Excellence. As of 2015, Alberta is still the only Canadian province that has enabled charter schools.

There are 23 Charter School campuses operated by 13 Alberta Charter Schools. The number of charter schools was limited to a maximum of 15, but the provincial government has lifted this limit with effect from September 2020.

Chile

Chile has a very long history of private subsidized schooling, similar to chartered schooling in the United States. Prior to the 1980s, most privately subsidized schools were religious and owned by churches or other private parties, but were supported by central government. In the 1980s, Augusto Pinochet's government promoted neoliberal reforms in the country. In 1981 a competitive voucher system for education was introduced. These vouchers can be used in public schools or private subsidized schools (which can be operated for a profit). After this reform, the proportion of privately subsidized schools, many of which are secular, increased from 18.5% of schools in 1980 to 32.7% of schools in 2001. As of 2012, almost 60% of Chilean students are studying in charter schools.

England and Wales

The UK established scholarship schools in England and Wales in 1988. They allowed individual schools that were independent of the local school board. When they were abolished in 1998, most of them turned into elementary schools, which, although under their local district authority, still enjoy a high degree of autonomy.

Before the 2010 general election, England had around 200 academies (publicly funded schools with a significant degree of autonomy).

Germany

Because of the art. According to items 7 des Constitution Private schools may only be set up if they do not increase the separation of pupils according to their parents' income classes. In return, all private schools are financially supported by government agencies, comparable to charter schools. The degree of control over school organization, curriculum, etc. that the state takes over varies from state to state and school to school. The average financial support from government agencies in 2009 was 85% of the total costs. Academically, all private schools must enable their students to take standardized, government-provided external tests like this To get high school diploma .

Hong Kong

Some private schools in Hong Kong receive government grants under the Direct Subsidy Scheme (DSS). DSS schools are free to design their curriculum, choose their own students, and charge tuition fees. Some DSS schools used to be state schools before joining the program.

Ireland

Charter schools in Ireland were primarily established by the Church of Ireland in the 18th century to educate the poor. They were sponsored by the state or charities, but run by the church. The model to be copied was Kilkenny College, but critics such as Bernard Mandeville believed that raising too many poor children would lead to unrealistic expectations. Notable examples are the Celbridge Collegiate School, Midleton College, Wilson's Hospital School, and King's Hospital.

Netherlands

New Zealand

Charter schools in New Zealand, marked as partner schools | kura hourua, were admitted after the 2011 general election following an agreement between the National Party and the ACT Party. The controversial law was passed by a majority of five. A small number of charter schools began in 2013 and 2014. All of them cater to students who have had problems in the normal state school system. Most students have problems with drugs, alcohol, poor attendance, and poor performance. Most of the students are Maori or Pacific Islanders. One of the schools is set up as a military academy. One of the schools ran into major difficulties within a few weeks of starting it. It is now run by a director of Child, Youth and Family, a government welfare organization, along with a commissioner appointed by the Ministry of Education. 36 organizations have applied to set up charter schools.

Norway

As in Sweden, the publicly funded but privately run charter schools are called in Norway friskoler and were officially established in 2003, but fired in 2007. Private schools have been part of the educational system since the Middle Ages and today consist of 63 Montessori and 32 Steiner (Waldorf) charter schools, some religious schools and 11 non-state-funded schools such as the Oslo International School, the German Max Tau School and the French School Lycée Français, in total 195 schools.

All charter schools can have a list of admission priorities, but only the non-government funded schools are allowed to select their students and make a profit. The charter schools cannot conduct entrance exams and the additional fees are very limited. In 2013 a total of 19,105 children were enrolled in privately run schools.

Sweden

The Swedish Friskolor System ("free schools") was introduced in 1992. These are publicly funded through school vouchers and can be operated by both non-profit and non-profit companies. Schools are restricted: for example, they are prohibited from supplementing public funds with tuition fees or other fees. Students must be admitted based on availability. and entrance exams are not permitted. There are approximately 900 charter schools across the country.

United States

According to the State Education Commission, "charter schools are semi-autonomous public schools that receive public funding. They operate under a written contract with a state, district, or other entity (referred to as an author or sponsor). That contract - or charter - details that how the school is organized and managed, what is expected of students, and how success is measured. Many charters are exempt from a variety of laws and regulations affecting other public schools if they continue to meet the requirements of their charters. "However, these schools must follow the state prescribed curriculum and are subject to the same rules and regulations that cover it, although the design is flexible.

Minnesota passed the first United States Charter Schools Act in 1991. As of 2015, Minnesota had 165 registered charter schools with over 41,000 students participating. The Bluffview Montessori School in Winona, Minnesota opened in 1992. The first charter to go into operation was the City Academy in St. Paul. Some specialized charter schools in Minnesota are the Metro Deaf School (1993), the Community of Peace Academy (1995), and the Mainstreet School of Performing Arts (2004).

As of December 2011, around 5,600 charter schools nationwide are estimated to have enrolled more than 2 million students. The numbers represent a 13% growth in student numbers in just one year while more than 400,000 students remain on charter school waiting lists. Over 500 new charter schools were opened in the 2011/12 school year, which corresponds to an estimated increase of 200,000 students. This year marks the largest increase in a year in terms of the number of additional students attending charter schools.

Perhaps the most radical experimentation with charter schools in the United States took place in New Orleans, Louisiana, after Hurricane Katrina (2005). As of 2009, the New Orleans Public Schools system was involved in reforms aimed at shifting power from the public school board before Katrina to individual school principals and boards, and overseeing the performance of the charter schools by creating renewable operating contracts with a term of five Years granted that made the closure possible by those who did not succeed, and parents the choice to enroll their children in almost every school in the district. New Orleans is one of two cities in the United States where the majority of students attend charter schools. 78% of all students in New Orleans attended charter schools in the 2011/12 school year. Except for five schools in New Orleans, five were charter schools as of May.

Unlike their public counterparts, the laws for charter schools vary significantly from state to state. The three states with the highest numbers of students enrolled in charter schools are California, Arizona, and Michigan. These differences are largely related to what types of public bodies are allowed to authorize the establishment of charter schools, whether and through which processes private schools can convert to charter schools, and which certification charter school teachers may require.

In California, the local school districts are the most common school deed students. If a local school district rejects a charter application, or if the proposed charter school provides services that are not provided by local school districts, a county government composed of superintendents from state schools or the state education authority may issue a charter. The Arizona State Board for Charter Schools grants charters in Arizona. Local school districts and the state school board can also issue certificates. In contrast, Michigan charter schools can only be approved by local school boards or the relevant school board of state colleges and universities.

Different states with charter school legislation have taken very different positions regarding the conversion of private schools into charter schools. For example, California does not allow private schools to convert to charter schools. Both Arizona and Michigan allow such conversions, but with different requirements. For example, a private school in Michigan looking to convert to a charter school must demonstrate that at least 25% of its student population is new students. Arizona law requires that private schools wishing to become charter schools in the state must have fair, non-discriminatory admission policies. While Michigan and California instructors at charter schools require state certification, Arizona does not.

Charter schools were targeted as a major part of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2002. Specifically, the law provides that students attending schools that are rated underperforming by state standards will now have the option to move to another school in the district, whether it's a state, private, or chartered school. The law also suggested that a failing school if it cannot show adequate annual progress be referred to as a charter school.

As of 2005, North Carolina had nearly 100 charter schools established by law in 1996. The 1996 legislation requires that no more than five charter schools be operated in a school district at any given time. It was passed to offer parents options regarding their children and the school they attend, with most of the costs being covered by tax revenues. After the early years of approving North Carolina charter schools, the power to issue charters shifted from local education authorities to the State Board of Education. This can also be compared to several other states that have different powers to accept applications from charter schools.

There is strong demand for private sector charter schools. Usually charter schools operate as non-profit organizations. However, the buildings in which they operate are usually owned by private landlords. Accordingly, this asset class is attracting interest from property investors looking to develop new schools. State and local governments have also shown willingness to help with funding. Charter schools have become increasingly popular in the recent past. In the years 2014–2015, 500 new charter schools were opened in the country. As of 2015, 6,700 charter schools in the US had approximately 2.9 million students enrolled.

Cyber ​​schools

Charter cyber schools function like typical charter schools in that they are independently organized schools but are run partially or entirely over the internet. Proponents say this allows for a lot more flexibility compared to traditional schools.

For the period 2000-2001, studies estimated that there were approximately 45,000 online K-12 students nationwide. Six years later, a study by Picciano and Seamon (2006) found that over 1 million students were involved. That number rose to 6.7 million students in 2013. A study by Watson, Murin, Vashaw, Gemin, and Rapp found that cyber charter schools currently (as of 2014) operate in all 50 states and the District of Columbia.

The increase in these online locations has created controversy. In November 2015, researchers from the University of Washington, Stanford University, and the Mathematica Policy Research Group published the first major study of online charter schools in the US, the National Study of Online Charter Schools. "Significantly weaker academic performance" in mathematics and reading was found in such schools compared to conventional schools. The study resulted from research in 17 US states with online charter schools. It concluded that online students' focus on their work is the biggest problem for online charter schools, and that in math, the difference in performance between online students and their conventionally trained counterparts equals cyber students who spend an entire school year missed school.

Four states have passed specific laws tailored to cyber charter schools. An example is Arizona, with approximately 3,500 students in cyber schools, about half of which are run by cyber charter schools and the other half by traditional public school districts. The cyber schools teach students from kindergarten through 12th grade. The environment ranges from being completely online at home to spending all of the class time in a formal school building while studying on the internet.

Cyber ​​Charter School diplomas were rated unequally by post-secondary institutions. Universities sometimes apply additional requirements or have cyber charter quotas that limit the number of applicants. The US military is also downgrading non-traditional diplomas, although starting in 2012 this could be circumvented by high ASVAB test scores.

Charter schools and public schools

In 2014, New Orleans became the first US location to create an all-charter school district called the Recovery School District.

A 2017 policy statement from the National Education Association expressed its strong commitment to public schools. Charter schools are funded by taxpayers, so the same liability, transparency, safeguards and impartiality as public schools must exist. Forty-four American states work with the District of Columbia to implement state charter school laws. Many states, however, do not require the charter to adhere to open assembly statutes or to meet the requirements for conflicts of interest affecting school districts, boards and staff.

The Trump administration's Secretary of Education, Betsy DeVos, was a major proponent of School Choice and Charter Schools.

So see

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