Why wasn't Glenn McGrath knighted?

Cricket in Australia - Cricket in Australia

Cricket in Australia
country Australia
Governing body Cricket australia
National team (s) Australia
Played first December 1803, Sydney
Registered players 1,558,821
International competitions
Only couple Test (total): 350,524 - Australia v England, 3rd Test 1936/37, Melbourne Cricket Ground

Test (day): 91.092 - Australia v England, day 1 (December 26), 4th Test 2013-14, Melbourne Cricket Ground

ODI: 93.013 - Australia v New Zealand, March 29, 2015, 2015 Cricket World Cup Final, Melbourne Cricket Ground

Cricket is the most popular summer sport in Australia internationally, nationally and locally. It is considered their national summer sport and is played across the country, particularly from September to April. Cricket Australia is the primary governing body for professional and amateur cricket. The 2017-18 National Cricket Census found 1,558,821 Australians participated in cricket competitions or programs - a 9% increase over the previous year. 30% of cricket attendees are now female, and 6 in 10 new entrants are female, one of the highest year-over-year numbers for attendance growth. In terms of visitor numbers, more than 2.3 million people visited cricket in the summer of 2017/18, surpassing the record of 1.8 million in 2016/17.

Regardless, official audience data shows that 93.6% of Australians saw at least cricket on television in the 2010/11 calendar year.

History

1803–1939

MCG cricket in 1864.
Tom Wills was Australia's greatest pre-test cricketer.

Cricket has been played in Australia for over 210 years. The first Australian cricket match took place in Sydney in December 1803, and a report in the Sydney Gazette on January 8, 1804 indicated that cricket was already well established in the infant colony. Intercolonial cricket in Australia began with a visit by cricketers from Victoria to Tasmania in February 1851. The match was played in Launceston on February 11th and 12th, with Tasmania winning by three wickets.

The first tour of an English team to Australia took place between 1861 and 1862 and was organized as a private company by the catering company Spiers and Pond. Another tour followed in 1863/64 under the direction of George Parr and was even more successful than the last.

In 1868, a team of Aboriginal cricketers became the first Australian team to tour England. The team played 47 games, won 14, drew 19 and lost 14. The heavy workload and bad weather took their toll when King Cole got a fatal case of tuberculosis while on tour.

Other tours by English teams took place in 1873–74 (with the most notable cricketer of the time WG Grace) and 1876–77. The 1876/77 season was notable for a match between a combined XI from New South Wales and Victoria and the touring English at Melbourne Cricket Ground, played on March 15-19. This match, later recognized as the first friendly, was won by Australia with 45 runs, largely thanks to an unbeaten 165 from Charles Bannerman. The outcome of this game has been viewed by the Australians and the English as a reflection of the rising standards of Australian cricket.

Billy Murdoch, who led the Australian team during the first ash test in 1882

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The rising standards of Australian cricket were further established during the first representative tour of England in 1878. A return visit in 1878-1879 is best remembered for a rebellion, and when Australia visited England in 1880 and the first test in England at The Oval, a system of international tours, which was well established. A famous victory on the England Tour in 1882 resulted in the placement of a satirical obituary in an English newspaper, The Sporting Times. The obituary says English cricket has died, and the The body is cremated and the ashes are brought to Australia . The English media then cited the next English tour to Australia (1882-83) as the quest to recover the ashes. The Sheffield Shield, Australia's premier world class cricket competition, was launched in 1892 by the Australasian Cricket Council, the first attempt by a national cricket board.

The era from the mid 1890s to World War I has been described as the golden age of Australian cricket. It was during this era that players such as Monty Noble, Clem Hill and, in particular, Victor Trumper, who was revered by the Australian public, appeared. It was also the first cricket club for women in the colonies, which was headed by Lily Poulett-Harris [1]. The Great War resulted in the suspension of international cricket and Sheffield Shield cricket, and the admission of many cricketers to the AIF. After the war, a team of AIF cricketers toured the UK.

International cricket began with a tour of a weakened English team in 1920-21. The strong Australian team, led by Armstrong and with a bowling attack led by Gregory and Ted McDonald, won the series 5-0, the first time this had been achieved in an Ashes series. Don Bradman, born in Cootamundra and raised in Bowral, was 20 years old when he made his Test debut in the first Test of the 1928-29 series against England. He held the records for highest individual Test innings and most centuries in Test cricket, and when he retired in 1948 he had the highest Test batting average, the last one he still holds. He scored 117 prime centuries, still the only Australian to score a century, and was knighted for his services to cricket.

The Bodyline controversy began when Bradman toured England with the Australian team in 1930. Bradman had a strong result, 974 runs with an average of 139.14, including a world record of 334 at Leeds, two more double centuries and one more singles. Watching these displays of wadding was Douglas Jardine, playing for Surrey. After speaking to fellow observers like Percy Fender and George Duckworth, he devised a tactic to cap Bradman and the others' amazing running rating. The tactic, originally referred to as the fast leg theory and later known as the bodyline, involved fast, short bowling aimed at the batsman's body and a packed leg side field. Jardine was named captain of England for the series in Australia in 1932/33 and was able to put these theories into practice. Combined with bowlers with the speed and accuracy of Harold Larwood and Bill Voce, the tactic required batsmen to risk injury to protect their wicket. In the third test in Adelaide, Larwood hit Australian captain Bill Woodfull over the heart and broke the skull of wicket keeper Bert Oldfield.

In December 1934, the Australian women's team played the English women in the women's first test match at the Brisbane Exhibition Ground. Despite a 7 wicket move to Anne Palmer in the first innings, the English women were too strong and won with 9 wickets.

1945-1969

Once again, the Shield and Test Cricket was ended when Australia mobilized for World War II. Immediately after the end of the war in Europe in 1945, an Australian service XI took part in a series of winner tests in England. The team was led by Lindsay Hassett and the charismatic all-rounder Keith Miller emerged. The series was drawn 2–2. After Bradman's resignation in 1948, Hassett, Miller and all-rounder Ray Lindwall formed the core of the Australian team. They were later joined by leg spiders all-rounders, Richie Benaud and batsman Neil Harvey.

In the series from 1958 to 1959, Benaud was the captain of the Australian team and managed to salvage the ashes. The 1960-61 series against the West Indies was widely regarded as one of the most memorable. The commitment of Benaud and his West Indian counterpart Frank Worrell to entertain cricket sparked declining interest in the sport. The gripping streak, including the first tie test, saw Australia win 2-1 and became the first holder of the newly commissioned Frank Worrell Trophy. The West Indian team was so loving that a ticker tape parade in their honor before leaving Australia drew a crowd of 300,000 Melburnians to bid them farewell.

There was ongoing controversy over illegal bowling actions in the late 1950s and early 1960s. A number of Australian and international bowlers have been accused of throwing or "throwing" during this period, including South Australian couple Alan Hitchcox and Peter Trethewey and New South Welshman Gordon Rorke. The controversy reached a climax when Ian Meckiff was recalled to the Australian team for the first test of the 1963/64 series against South Africa. When asked to throw his first game, he was balled four times for not throwing by referee Colin Egar before being removed from the attack by his skipper Benaud. As a result, Meckiff withdrew from all levels of cricket after the game, and Egar received death threats from people injured when he called.

1970 - today

In the 1970s, players and administrators came into conflict again. Due to poor planning, Australia visited South Africa immediately after a trip to India from 1969 to 1970. This would be the last trip to South Africa before the application of international sports sanctions against apartheid policy. The tired Australians met a very strong South African team in conditions very different from the subcontinent and were subsequently beaten 4-0. A request from the Australian Cricket Board to players to play another game in South Africa met opposition from the players, led by Captain Bill Lawry. During the following home series against England Lawry was dismissed as captain and replaced by the South Australian batsman Ian Chappell. Lawry remains the only Australian captain to be sacked in the middle of a test series. Chappell, part of a younger and more confident generation, saw the Chamber's treatment of Lawry as shameful and promised never to be put into the same situation.

Greg Chappell, Ian's younger brother, took over as captain in 1975/76 and led the Australian team at the Centenary Test in Melbourne in March 1977. Australia celebrated 100 years of Test Cricket and won the Test by 45 runs, the exact result of the match 100 years earlier.

While Australian cricket was celebrating, Australian media tycoon Kerry Packer planned to lose television rights to Australian cricket. During the 1977 Ashes tour, the cricket world became aware that Packer had signed 35 of the world's best cricketers for a number of games, including 18 Australians, 13 of whom were part of the tour party. World Series Cricket, as the breakaway group was known, divided Australian cricket in two for almost three years. Former Australian captain Bob Simpson was called back from retirement to lead an inexperienced team in a home series against India in 1977/78. He won 3-2 and then a tour to the West Indies that was marked by an ugly uproar. For the 1978-79 Ashes series, he was replaced by the young Victorian Graham Yallop. The ensuing thrashing, a 5-1 win for England and the success of World Series Cricket forced the Australian Cricket Board to admit on Packer's terms.

The agreement between ACB and WSC led to the introduction of a number of innovations including night cricket, colored clothing, and an annual limited overs-tri series called the World Series Cup. It also signaled the return of champion cricketers Greg Chappell, Dennis Lillee and Rod Marsh. After her resignation at the end of the 1983/84 season, a series of tours by an Australian rebel team to South Africa that violated the sporting sanctions imposed against the apartheid regime quickly followed. The combined effect was to keep Australian cricket at its lowest point under reluctant captain Allan Border, losing the 1985-86 Home (2-1) and away (1-0) Test series to New Zealand.

The long road back to Australian cricket began in India in 1986/87. With Bob Simpson in a new coaching role, Border set out to identify a group of players to team around. These players showed part of the steel that was used in the famous test at the MA Chidambaram Stadium in Chennai. Returning to the subcontinent for the 1987 World Cup, Australia surprised the cricket world by defeating England at Eden Gardens in Kolkata to win the tournament with a disciplined brand of cricket. On the 1989 Ashes tour, the development of players like Steve Waugh and David Boon and the discovery of Mark Taylor and Ian Healy had paid off. England's 4-0 drubbing marked the first time since 1934 that Australia had reclaimed the ashes of their home and marked the resurgence of Australia as a cricket power. Australia would hold the ashes for the next 16 years.

Most successful leg spinbowler in the history of the game, Shane Warne made his debut in the 1991/92 Third Test against India at the Sydney Cricket Ground. He made a distinctive test debut, taking 1/150 off 45 overs and recording numbers of 1/228 in his first test series. From that humble beginning, Warne dominated Australian cricket for 15 years, taking 708 wickets averaging 25.41. When the fast intermediate bowler Glenn McGrath was first selected in the Australian team for the Perth Test against New Zealand in 1993/94, the nucleus of a hugely successful bowling attack was formed. In 1994-1995, under new captain Taylor, the Australians defeated the then-dominant West Indies in the Caribbean to win back the Frank Worrell Trophy for the first time since 1978, claiming to be the best team in the world.

After a disappointing World Cup at home in 1992, Australia embarked on a number of immensely successful World Cup campaigns. 1996 to Sri Lanka on the subcontinent, fought for victory in England in 1999 after early setbacks and were unbeaten on the way to another victory in South Africa. The move of the captain from Taylor to Steve Waugh had little impact on the success of the Australian team. Waugh made a rocky start to his tenure as captain, drawing 2-2 with the West Indies in the Caribbean and losing to Sri Lanka 1-0 away. A win in the Australian team's first friendly against Zimbabwe marked the start of an unprecedented 16-Test winning streak. The streak finally ended in Kolkata in 2001 with a notable India victory after being asked to move on. For Waugh, India would remain undefeated.

MCG during an ODI game between Australia and India in 2004.

Australia's success has not been without its critics. Racism allegations have been leveled against the Australian team, an incident that resulted in Darren Lehmann's suspension in 2003. Contacts between Warne and batsman Mark Waugh and illegal bookmakers, initially kept under lock and key by the ACB, were later revealed by the Australian press. Triggers allegations of hypocrisy in light of Australian cricket's previous stance on match-fixing allegations. Warne was later suspended from all types of cricket for 12 months after being positive on banned diuretics such as Hydrochlorothiazide other Amiloride had been tested. The Australian team's cricket brand has been lauded for its spirit and aggressiveness, but critics said this aggressive approach led to ugly sleigh rides like the confrontation between McGrath and West Indian batsman Ramnaresh Sarwan at the Antigua Recreation Ground in 2003. Tasmanian batsman Ricky Ponting would admit a drinking problem after incidents in India and Sydney.

A rehabilitated ponting would succeed Waugh as captain in 2004. While injured against India for most of the 2004/05 series, his team, under reigning captain Adam Gilchrist, defeated India in India, the first Australian straight win in India since Bill Lawry's team in 1969-70. A 2-1 defeat in the 2005 Ashes series in England was quickly avenged at home with a 5-0 win over England in 2006-2007. The whitewash was the first in an Ashes streak since Warwick Armstrong's team in 1920-21. After the series, the successful McGrath and Warne bowling combo retired from Test Cricket, with a record that was difficult to achieve. Australia won the 2007 World Cricket Championship under Ricky Ponting in the Caribbean and was unbeaten during the tournament. Australian cricketer Matthew Hayden scored the most runs in the tournament. The final was Glenn McGrath's last game and he was also the tournament's tallest wicket taker and player of the tournament.

The 2015 World Cricket Championship was jointly hosted by Australia and New Zealand from February 14th to March 29th, 2015. Fourteen teams played 49 games in 14 venues, with Australia playing 26 games on the grounds in Adelaide, Brisbane, Canberra, Hobart, Melbourne, Perth and Sydney. Australia defeated New Zealand by 7 wickets and won their fifth ICC Cricket World Cup in front of 93,013 spectators. The victorious captain Michael Clarke withdrew from the ODIs with immediate effect after the final.

International cricket

The Australian national team is one of the most successful teams in international cricket. Australia was recognized alongside England as one of the founding nations of the Imperial Cricket Conference, later the International Cricket Council. Australia typically plays a test series against a visiting team and a one-day series between two other teams at home each summer and tours overseas for the rest of the year

Test cricket

On March 15, 1877, an Australian representative team played against England in a later friendly. They are the most successful test cricket nation with a higher percentage of games won than any other nation.

In the test cricket, the Australian team fights for various trophies and championships. The ICC Test Championship is an international competition organized by the ICC for the 10 teams playing test cricket. The competition is fictional insofar as it is merely a ranking scheme that is superimposed on all international games that are otherwise played as part of the regular test cricket without further considerations.

The most famous of all these trophies is The Ashes, played for the first time between Australia and England in 1882. Other bilateral trophies were generally named after the great players from the two competing nations.

One-day internationals

The Australian team took part in the first one-day international match on January 5, 1971, again against England at the Melbourne Cricket Ground. Since then, the team has set a good record in one international match and has won five cricket world championships, more than any other national team.

After the end of the World Series Cricket, there was a triangular series of one-day international matches in the Australian season from 1979 to 1980, in which the Australian team and two touring teams participated. The first incarnation of this tournament was called the World Series Cup and included night cricket, colored uniforms and a white ball. From 1994 to 1995, due to the perceived weakness of the invited Zimbabwean team, the tournament included a cricket team from Australia A. For the 1996 / In 97, the World Series Cup was replaced by a series of tournaments named after a main sponsor, including the Carlton and United Series, the VB Series, and the Commonwealth Bank Series. The follow-up series followed a similar format.

Australia and New Zealand hosted the 1992 World Cricket Championship and 2015 World Cricket Championship. In 1992, the tournament was the first to showcase the innovations that are already common in Australian one-day games such as night cricket and colored clothing. The tournament consisted of nine nations, which was expanded to include a South African team that recently returned to world cricket. Australia, despite starting firm favorites, fared poorly and failed to reach the semi-finals. Pakistan defeated England in the final in front of 87,182 spectators at the Melbourne Cricket Ground.

The 2015 World Cricket Championship was the 11th World Cricket Championship, which was hosted jointly by Australia and New Zealand from February 14 to March 29, 2015. Fourteen teams played 49 games at 14 venues, with Australia playing 26 games on the grounds in Adelaide, Brisbane, Canberra. Hobart, Melbourne, Perth and Sydney. The final game of the tournament took place at the Melbourne Cricket Ground between the two hosts, New Zealand and Australia, in front of a record crowd of 93,013.

Women cricket

290,566 cricket participants are currently taking part. Australia's national women's cricket team competes internationally and has won the women's cricket world championship five times, more than any other team. As with men's cricket, Australia and England were the first two Test nations for women to play in the first Women’s Test in Brisbane in 1934. Australia competes with England for women's ashes, a cricket bat that was symbolically burned prior to the 1998 test series. The Australian team also competes in the Rose Bowl series, a series of one-day international matches against New Zealand.

Domestic cricket

At the national level, each of the six states has a cricket team that competes in two separate summer competitions:

In addition, eight city-based franchises compete in the national Twenty20 competition known as the Big Bash League. The Big Bash League replaced the previous competition, the KFC Twenty20 Big Bash, in 2011.

Local club cricket is as popular as social cricket, which includes variations such as backyard and beach cricket.

First class cricket

The Sheffield Shield is Australia's premier domestic cricket competition. Established in 1892 using an estate of £ 150 provided by Lord Sheffield to improve Australian cricket, it was originally referred to as the Sheffield Shield as recognition. When it was founded, the competition included the colonies (later states) of New South Wales, South Australia and Victoria. Queensland was admitted to the Shield competition for the 1926/27 season, Western Australia in 1947/48 and Tasmania in 1977/78.

In 1999 the Australian Cricket Board (now Cricket Australia) announced a 4-year sponsorship deal that included the renaming of the Sheffield Shield to the Pura Milk Cup and the Pura Cup the following season. As of the 2008/09 season, the title has its original name again.

At the end of the 2006/07 season, all participating teams had won at least one Sheffield Shield / Pura Cup, with New South Wales being the most successful state with 44 wins and Tasmania winning the first in 2006/07.

One day cricket

The Matador BBQs One Day Cup is the A list (Limited Overs Cricket) national cricket competition in Australia. It was founded from 1969 to 1970 and consisted of the state teams and a team from New Zealand. Originally a knock-out tournament, the format and name have changed several times since the beginning, depending on the sponsor of the naming rights.

New Zealand withdrew from the competition after the 1974/75 season. The Canberra Comets, a team from the Australian capital territory, were recorded for three seasons from 1997 to 1998 to 1999 to 2000. At the end of the 2006/07 season, Western Australia was the most successful state with 11 wins, while South Australia and Tasmania each won two.

In 2013 the format changed and all games were played in Sydney for different reasons. It was broadcast live on GEM. The entire competition took place in October in front of the Sheffield Shield.

Twenty20 cricket

The KFC Big Bash League or BBL for short is the Australian cricket tournament Twenty20, which was founded in 2011. The Big Bash League replaced the previous competition, the KFC Twenty20 Big Bash, and instead features eight franchises in town the six state teams that had previously competed. There is one team in the capital of each state, and two in Sydney and Melbourne.

BBL games are played in Australia during the summer months of December and January. In terms of the average audience per game (2015/16 season), it now ranks ninth in the list of the most visited sports leagues in the world.

Women cricket

Women's cricket test in 1935

The founding mother of women's cricket in Australia was young Tasmanian Lily Poulett-Harris, who ran the Oyster Cove team in the league she founded in 1894. Lily's obituary after her death a few years later in 1897 states that her team was almost certainly the first to be formed in the colonies [2]. This was followed by the Victoria Women's Cricket Association in 1905 and the Australian Women's Cricket Association in 1931. The current competition is run by the Women's National Cricket League.

The first domestic women's cricket competition in Australia was the Australian Women's Cricket Championships, a two-week annual tournament established in 1930-31. The championships were replaced by the Women's National Cricket League in 1996-97. Victoria and New South Wales were the most successful teams.

In 2007, the Australian Women's Twenty20 Cup was introduced, in which government representative teams also took part. In 2015, it was replaced by the Women's Big Bash League, which features eight franchise teams.

Club cricket

Club cricket is popular and the first step for players who want to be selected for their national and national teams. Each national association has a peak club cricket championship called "District" or "Grade" cricket:

International reasons

Nineteen different reasons in Australia have been used for international cricket (Tests, ODIs and Twenty20 Internationals). Five were used only once during the 1992 World Cup, while three (all in Tasmania) only hosted games during the 1980s World Cup. The six most important are:

Other reasons that have been used for test cricket are:

Reasons that were only used for one-day international matches are: